Sunday, May 24, 2020

Terrorism And The Iraqi Government - 2007 Words

Iraq is a nation that is in mass turmoil right now. Right now this country is under attack by a jihadist militant group known as ISIS. Despite numerous advantages over these terrorist ISIS has managed to take control over a significant amount of territory in Iraq. The root of Iraq’s problems is the strong Sunni-Shia sectarian divide that exists within the country. This sectarian divide is due to an Iraqi government that fails to fairly represent all of its people. Clearly the current troubled state of Iraq shows that the Iraqi government is deficient in providing national security and representative government to its people. The Iraqi government has failed to implement a government that equally represents both the Sunni and Shia Muslims in the country. A lot of the Iraqi government’s failures to have representative government has to do with the United States initial invasion of Iraq in 2003. Prior to the invasion there was not much of a sectarian divide, â€Å"Historically, sectarian and ethnic differences had not been politically mobilized. Cross-sectarian/cross-ethnic intermarriage existed in Iraq. The sectarian identity as a politically mobilizing force had been in decline in Iraq, particularly since the mid-twentieth century† (Yamao 2012, 29). After the invasion of Iraq, the United States replaced Saddam Hussein’s regime with the Coalition Provincial Authority. The CPA administration directed an election in 2005 to shape a parliament for Iraq and they allocated politicalShow MoreRelatedTerrorism And The Iraqi Government2176 Words   |  9 PagesThis sectarian divide is due to an Iraqi government that fails to fairly represent all of its people. Clearly the current troubled state of Iraq shows that the Iraqi government is deficient in providing national security and representative government to its people. The Iraqi government has failed to implement a government that equally represents both the Sunni and Shia Muslims in the country. A lot of the Iraqi’s government failure to have representative government has to do with the United StatesRead MoreThe World Capital Of Terrorism1092 Words   |  5 PagesCRW-3 28.11.16 Terrorism in Iraq Did you know that in 2014 ISIS controlled more than 34,000 square miles in the middle east? ISIS is a terrorist group that is in Iraq. Iraq is the number one country with the most terrorist groups. ISIS is the number one terrorist group in the Iraq. Malala Yousafzai was shot by a terrorist group from Iraq. 4,000 ISIS members are in Iraq alone. Terrorism in Iraq is a big problem. ISIS is the number one terrorist group in all of Iraq. The Global Terrorism Index has aRead MoreThe Iraq Invasion Of Iraq1548 Words   |  7 Pagesthe appropriate action by the United States. Should the United States have interfered in Iraqi affairs? What was the real intention of accusing Iraq for having weapons of mass destruction and holding them accountable for the 9/11 terrorist attacks even though they were innocent of both allegations? Did the U.S. media cover all the truth in Iraq? Was the main purpose of the invasion the greed of oil ? Are Iraqis living in peace after overthrowing the dictator Saddam Hussain? All of the reasoning providedRead MoreIraq and Democracy Essay711 Words   |  3 Pagesto Iraqis must be done, but the process has to be careful and proceeded by serious soul-searching of the case (Trudny). Democratic regimes in the region would face populations feeling humiliated by the West and vulnerable to politicians who would seek to exploit the deep-seated resentments relating to Israel; ethnic and religious divisions; and the intrusion of foreign, particularly Western influence. In a period when the US emphasizes the war on terrorism, new governmentsRead MoreIt Is Extremely Difficult To Define What Terrorism Is,1204 Words   |  5 PagesIt is extremely difficult to define what terrorism is, and it is difficult to determine what may influence an individual to form or join a terrorist organization. A definition of terrorism that is often used is that terrorism is the threat or use of violence in order to pursue political and social objectives. By using violence, terrorist groups are often able to coerce their desired result because they leave the people and the authorities of the regions they attacked in fear. In the years after SeptemberRead MoreCurrent Crimes and Criminal Issues925 Words   |  4 Pageslocal or regional crimes, they range from illegal immigration, cybercrimes, terror, racism and terrorism. The war on terror in the aftermath of the attacks of Sep. 11, 2001 has undermined human rights globally, according to activists and experts who when the UN conference in Paris. Immediately after Sep. 11 2001 there was dramatic change in government policies in regard to terrorism, suspected terrorism, and the monitoring of citizens, with the underlying believe that human rights norms as establishedRead MoreMiddle East Essay720 Words   |  3 Pages they are in part responsible for terrorism activities throughout the world. ISIS is not only a threat to the Middle-east, they want to at war with anyone or any country do not do share their values. The topic of Iran and ISIS are a perplex and difficult subject; thus, I will dwell more about the threat pose by both Iran and ISIS to the Middle-East and the world. In December of 2007, the Unites States and the Iraqi government decided to end the U.S government role after a nine year of militaryRead MoreThe September 11 Terrorist Attacks904 Words   |  4 Pagescontainment, this new approach became a hybrid of Wilsonianism and Jacksonianism where liberalism fused with realist means to produce a unilateral American government unafraid to demonstrate their power in order to preserve American security. Heavily influenced by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the potential threat of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction, the 2002 National Security Strategy (NSS) introduced the controversial tenet of â€Å"preemption†. As stated in part III of the 2002Read More Media Propaganda Hides American Terrorism Essay1178 Words   |  5 PagesMedia Propaganda Hides American Terrorism    An article in this months Stuff magazine for men, titled Die American Scum tells us that the world sucks. It sucks because while Americans have given other countries Mickey Mouse, burgers and gum, won wars for them, kept the peace and disposed of dictators, all we have gotten in return is terrorism. The article, by John Parrish, goes on to discourage Americans from traveling to 10 terrorist countries including Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, ColombiaRead MoreGlobal War On Terrorism And Terrorism1367 Words   |  6 PagesGlobal War On Terrorism   Ã‚  Ã‚   The attack executed in the United States on September 11, 2001 was one of the worst attacks and acts of war ever seen in U.S. history. On that day 2,996 innocent people were killed, over 6,000 people were injured, and about $10 billion in structural and infrastructure damages was caused. The cost added up to $3 trillion in total.   Ã‚  Ã‚   The Global War on Terrorism is a metaphor of war referring to the global military campaign led by the United States of America. The war

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Corporal Punishment - 1162 Words

Johnita Donnell Mr. Jon Schneiderman Enc 1101 4 April 2013 Corporal Punishment The question of whether corporal punishment is an effective method of discipline is greatly debated. Corporal Punishment is a form of physical discipline that may cause pain for wrongdoing, or to bring for change in ones attitude which may seem disrespectful. Corporal punishment should not be allowed in my opinion because to what extent is this type of punishment considered abuse, it could traumatize children and it may cause the child to grow up thinking that violence and love is ok. â€Å"In 20011, a CBS news reporter by the name of Maura Kennedy reported that a man from Colorado had been facing charges of child abuse for spanking his own son.† His child†¦show more content†¦Especially as parents because they’re the ones to nurture kids and protect them that’s when they start to think otherwise. When one feels like they have no one else to turn to they become outcast, no friends, they just want to be to themselves. But depression can make your mind think things that are ok are really not. Depression of this sort can be contributed by the aggression from hands of their parents. Another result of corporal punishment could be that the child may grow up thinking that violence and love go hand in hand. Thus, meaning that if you love them that it is ok to cause physical violence among oneself. Since the parents proclaim to administer â€Å"spankings† to a child out of â€Å"love† when they grow up as adults they begin to think that abusive relationships are ok. Corporal violence also teaches that violence is an acceptable solution to frustration and anger involving people. Research shows that children who were abused will become more defiant in the future. As they enter the adult stage of life they become violent, destructive and also a threat to society as well as others around them. Effective types of discipline such as, talking to the child and addressing the problem, letting them know what the issue at hand is, and taking away things; like toys, video games and things us such may teach self control, guidance and also molding. When scolding a ch ild telling them what is and what may not be acceptable could pretty muchShow MoreRelatedCorporal Punishment1764 Words   |  8 PagesCORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH STUDY CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS 4.1 INTRODUCTION To interpret something is to give it a meaning., Ttherefore, data analysis is the act of organising and reducing the data to a more manageable and interpretable form (Krà ¼ger, De Vos, Fouchà © Venter, and 2005: 218). To put it more concisely, data analysis is the organisationing of raw data into more concise and intelligible data which can later be analysed (BlessRead MoreCorporal Punishment Is Not Uncommon851 Words   |  4 Pagesbeginning of recorded history, parents have used corporal punishment as a form of discipline. Bible verses such as this instructs us that spanking as a form of corrective behavior coincides with Christian ideology. In the early stages of a child’s life, before the ability to understand reasoning and explanations, corporal punishment is necessary to correct undesirable behavior and promote discipline. In recent years, this particular form of punishment has been banned in educational institutions andRead More Corporal Punishment Essay895 Words   |  4 PagesCorporal punishment is a very controversial topic that is being discussed amongst educators across the nation. Corporal punishment refers to any physical form of punishment, but in this case it refers to in schools. Currently there are many different terms used to label corporal punishment, for example, it has been called spanking, paddling, caning, lashing, popping, smacking, whipping or beating. Each term carries its own different meaning, but they all represents some form of corporal punishmentRead MoreEssay on Corporal Punishment1745 Words   |  7 PagesThe deciding factor in the future of corporal punishment is seen in the Ingraham v. Wright Supreme Court case. In 1970, James Ingraham, an eighth grade student of Drew Junior High School was one of the many beneficiaries of corporal punishment distributed by Willie Wright, the principal of the high school. The rationality behind Ingraham’s punishment was that he was slow to respond to his teacher instruc tions. As a result, his teacher sent him to the principal office where he bent over the tableRead MoreEffectiveness of Corporal Punishment1320 Words   |  5 Pagesof punishment is most efficient in eliciting avoidance behaviors. For a number of years the debate about the use and effectiveness of corporal punishment by teachers has divided educators, parents and ministry officials. As a result, researchers has tried their best to determine whether punishment or harm to a child does indeed thwart misbehavior and encourage students to follow the rules and regulations set forth by the schools. Although, Trinidad and Tobago has banned corporal punishment itRead MoreCorporal Punishment in Schools1531 Words   |  7 PagesCorporal punishment in schools Advocates of school corporal punishment argue that it provides an immediate response to indiscipline and that the student is quickly back in the classroom learning, rather than being suspended from school. Opponents believe that other disciplinary methods are equally or more effective. Some regard it as tantamount to violence or abuse. In the United States and the United Kingdom, and generally in the English-speaking world, the use by schools of corporal punishmentRead MoreIs Corporal Punishment Child Abuse?841 Words   |  4 Pagesthat corporal punishment is a part of the list of child abuse. Corporal punishment should not be considered child abuse whether in the home or in public schools, because it has long been used in society for hundreds of years and has proven to be an efficient and suitable punishment for children. Corporal Punishment- punishment of a physical nature, such as caning, flogging, or beating. (Farlex). Corporal Punishment is mainly thought of only in schools but can also include a kind of punishment inRead MoreCorporal Punishment Is A Form Of Physical Punishment1363 Words   |  6 Pages Corporal punishment is a form of physical punishment that inflicts pain on kids for their negative actions such as spanking. This topic is controversial because some people feel very strongly that they should be allowed to continue using these methods and others feel very strongly that they should not be allowed to. I feel as if this method of punishment is inhumane and should not continue to be used. The modernization of psychology has proved that hitting children will not help them learn thatRead MoreCorporal Punishment in Schools1484 Words   |  6 PagesCorporal Punishment in Schools Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain as retribution for an offence, or for the purpose of disciplining or reforming a wrongdoer, or to deter attitudes or behaviour deemed unacceptable (Miller, Vandome, amp; McBrewster, 2009). Corporal punishment can be divided into three categories, these include: judicial, domestic and school. For the purpose of this essay we will be focusing on school corporal punishment, the advantages and guidelines to followRead MoreCorporal Punishment And Its Usage986 Words   |  4 Pagesof whether or not parents and teachers should use corporal punishment in the name of discipline had caught my eye for several reasons. One of the most important reasons is that I was beaten by a wooden paddle while I was growing up. I was about 12 years of age when my teacher beats all of my classmates including me just because one of us was misbehaving. That was in Baghdad, Iraq, where teachers and parents are allowed to use corporal punishment freely wi thout any fear. Another reason is that I was

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Business Plan BonChon Essay - 3160 Words

Brief Content Brief Content ..........................................................................................i Background .......................................................................................... 1 Diagnosis Environment analysis A.BonChon SWOT .......................................................................................... 2 B.Customer Analysis .......................................................................................... 3 C.Commpetitor analysis........................................................................................ 4 Current BonChon Market Objectives.......................................................................................... 5 Plan†¦show more content†¦So,BonChon’s main focus is to provide customer with high quality and healthy food with good services for the customer satisfication. C. Competitor Analysis 1. Mc’Donnalds Market Position : They cover many customer levels in the market. They have a breakfast menu for the workers, a children package playground for the kids, another that they have a cheap menu for the C class. Market position Mc’Donnalds is the restaurant with comfortable place for hang out, fun place for kids (have kid’s playground), and 24 hours restaurant. Strength Have many strategic stores Have a good branding promotion Cover many customer levels Weakness They don’t really concerned about their product’s taste 2. Lotteria ­Ã‚ ­ Market Positioning : Lotteria’s market positioning is to make restaurant with clean environment, good and fast service, an high quality food. Strength Big Portion Chicken with a special seasoning Weakness Store’s design not very attractive Not very good at branding and promotion Current BonChon Markets Objectives Entering the third year in Indonesia, BonChon wants to create new experience for their customers and develop the market range from A to B class to A to C. So BonChon want to make new menu set creation that can provide the C class at BonChon.With a budget of Rp.Show MoreRelatedCase Study: Paulis Restaurant1378 Words   |  6 PagesAteneo de Davao University School of Business and Governance Business Management Division Case Study: Pauli’s Restaurant and Microbrewery Submitted by: Joanna Paula P. Cuario Submitted to: Mr. Reynaldo Navacilla Mgt 433 Mon.-Sat. / 1:00pm-2:30pm / C503 Pauli’s Restaurant and Microbrewery Introduction Pauli’s Restaurant and Microbrewery is a popular downtown pub in a major city. It has different locations or expansions in six regional cities and also operates a corporateRead MoreCase Study: Paulis Restaurant1393 Words   |  6 PagesAteneo de Davao University School of Business and Governance Business Management Division Case Study: Pauli’s Restaurant and Microbrewery Submitted by: Joanna Paula P. Cuario Submitted to: Mr. Reynaldo Navacilla Mgt 433 Mon.-Sat. / 1:00pm-2:30pm / C503 Pauli’s Restaurant and Microbrewery Introduction Pauli’s Restaurant and Microbrewery is a popular downtown pub in a major city. It has different locations or expansions in six regional cities and also operates a corporate web site. On whichRead MoreFranchising Is A Long Term Essay1286 Words   |  6 Pagesfranchising is one of the easiest ways to start a business. Franchising is defined as a long-term, continuing business relationship wherein for consideration, the franchisor grants to the franchise a licensed right, subject to agreed requirements and restrictions, to condusct business utilising the trade and/or service marks of the franchisor and also provides to the franchisee advice and assistance in organising, merchandising, and managing the business conducted to the licensee ï â€º1ï  . The company granting

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Jazz Music free essay sample

This paper examines the history of American jazz music, various jazz artists, cultural, and musical influences. This paper provides an in depth look at the history of jazz, the early development of the music style, through African American musicians trying to create music that was uplifting; the direct opposite of the blues. The author discusses rhythm and instrumentation, numerous jazz artists and popular tunes. Jazz is associated with the African American people and this is an influence unequaled in the field of music. The true spirit of jazz arises from a revolt from convention, custom, authority, and boredom, even sorrow, from everything that would confine the soul of man. The blacks that invented it called their songs the blues, and they werent capable of satire or deception. Jazz was their explosive attempt to cast off the blues and be happy, carefree happy, even in the midst of sordidness and sorrow. The horns also added to the rhythm by adding a lot of syncopation throughout the piece as they played extra loud accent notes with high pitches. The theme of the Eng had variations between the big band and the soloists that created a call and response between the two as well. Since It was a big band playing this piece the Instruments Included: saxophones, trumpets, bass, trombones, etc. So It essentially had the sound of a marching band. The trumpet solo had a fast tempo and It was played at a loud volume, whereas when the bass and drums played the volume soften up, while the tempo was still being played fast.While this song was written music it seemed there was room for improvisation for the soloists, I noticed the saxophone player close his eyes a few times during his part. The second song Im going to write about is Blues for Sits. This song is played by the entire big band but is intended to sound like a small band. It is in the form of the blues and is played in a minor key. The tempo starts out slow with a low pitch in the beginning, then the band gradually crescendos too louder volume.The saxophone and drums played a homophobic texture, as the saxophones played one melody and the drums accompanied with the harmony. That eventually led into the call and response, with the alto saxophone and trumpet responding. They created syncopation with loud accent notes. As the tenor saxophone was playing his solo it seemed he could have added some elements of improvisations, there were also accent notes played by the big band while he was doing his solo. The solos tone color was mellow and had a dark feel to it. Overall I really enjoyed every piece that was played at this concert.I loved when Charlie Caves played the drums/bells and I also liked the very talented singer, Slav Solve. I thought this concert show cased every instrument throughout each song with different solos. The power behind all those instruments was memorizing and you could easily see how much work the musicians put Into these pieces. I liked the variety of song choices, there was a little bit of everything, from a loud, marching band piece, to a fast tempo bebop, to slower tempo blues, and some salsa for something different.This concert definitely held my attention from beginning to end. Jazz Music By hallucinates 20 Swing, Sunny Side of the Street, Bebop Charlie, which is a song that is a transition between swing and bebop, Blues for Sits, which was played by the big band and was intended to sound like a small band, It Had to be You, which featured a guest vocalist songs tone color a bright, high energy, dancing feel to it and the overall volume was response between the two as well. Since it was a big band playing this piece the instruments included: saxophones, trumpets, bass, trombones, etc. So it essentially had the sound off marching band. The trumpet solo had a fast tempo and it was you could easily see how much work the musicians put into these pieces. I liked the something different. This concert definitely held my attention from beginning to end.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

The current policies of land use in Australia

The current policies of land use in Australia Land is a very important asset that must be planned for effectively in order to ensure that it gives maximum output while remaining sustainable. According to Koomen and Beurden (2011, p. 73), land is an asset which is scarce and very fragile, making it necessary to develop mechanisms of using it in a wise manner.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The current policies of land use in Australia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, it is of great concern that the society has not come to appreciate the importance of land as a scarce and a fragile asset that needs protection in order to ensure that there is sustainability. National planners in various countries have perfected the art of developing policies on how various resources can be used sustainably in order to ensure that they can still be used in future. However, they have failed to come up with measures that would ensure that land is protected from any possible destruction that may make it unproductive in future (Gaffikin Morrissey 2011, p. 70). Strategic changes being experienced in the modern society are presenting new practical dilemmas that hinder successful achievement of spatial land use planning outcomes. This research will focus on the current policies of land use in Australia and the prevailing conflict between public input, community interests, and effective outcomes. Australia is one of the leading economies in the world. It has one of the largest per capita income in this region, with its Human Development Index considered the second best in the world. The government of Australia has been keen to develop land policies that would protect the interest all the stakeholders. There has been need to reconcile the conflict between public input and community interests through proper strategic spatial land use planning. It is important that the interest of the investors, public, and the national government in land use be protected in o rder to ensure that the three sectors work in harmony to promote development of the country’s economy (Chapin 2007, p. 40). The government has made an effort to ensure that there is a clear plan on how land in this country should be used, and how different stakeholders should relate on issues concerning land.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The economy of Australia has been expanding very rapidly over the past years. Urban centers are developing at a very high rate. This is caused by the preference of people to stay in urban centers than in the rural settings. The City of Melbourne has experienced a massive increase in population over the past two decades. The Victorian State Government has been concerned of the best way land can be used to benefit all the stakeholders within the city (Jha Singh 2008, p. 67). The Australian Collaborative Land Use Mapping Pr ogram was developed by the national government to help in land planning, especially in cities that are experiencing huge growth over the past few years. The East-West Link Project is part of the vision by Melbourne City planners to help manage the limited land within the city. According to Scholl (2012, p. 67), spatial planning goes beyond land planning. It entails protection of the welfare of the members of the society by ensuring that they have access to land and all its resources that can make them lead decent lives. According to Kawakami (2013, p. 45) the government of Australia has made efforts to ensure that land, especially in the major cities such as Melbourne, is not only used to give maximum output, but also remain sustainable for the future generation. The planned construction of the East West Link road is intended to link Western Ring Road and Eastern Freeway. This government project is intending to decongest the city by creating an alternative route that can be used by motorists connecting between the two highways. However, such massive government contracts always come with conflicts on how stakeholders should be involved, and how such projects may affect other players (Albrechts 2006, p. 1150). The outcome of this project is intended to help all the stakeholders within this city by reducing its population. However, this raised some conflict between public input and community interests. According to Barker (2006, p. 67), land as an asset is scarce and very fragile. Land cannot be replaced once destroyed. For this reason, the current generation has a responsibility to the future generation by ensuring that land is used sustainably. However, the current strategic spatial land use planning approach taken by the government over this project has been criticized as not being sustainable. For instance, the local community has complained of the consequences associated with building this road. One of the main complains that have been raised by the local co uncil politicians is the possible loss of large parts of the Royal Park.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The current policies of land use in Australia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This park has been considered as one of the most important recreational facility within this community. This road will have to go through this park, and this will affect its sustainability. Some of these politicians have argued that the Victorian State Government should have considered construction of metro railway lines instead, because the possibility of this project destroying the park is very high. The local community feels that the benefit of the new road is far much less as compared to the negative consequences it shall have on their livelihood (Potschin Haines-Young 2011, p. 91). This means that all the stakeholders must be involved to ensure that this public input does not have adverse effect on the interest of the community. This project has to continue because the need to implement it has been identified, and funds needed have already been set aside. However, the stakeholders must find a way of addressing the issues raised in order to ensure that the interest of the local community is protected. According to Scholl (2012, p. 80), it is important to involve the local community in any project that involves land use in order to eliminate any form of resistance. Some of the members of this community will have to shelve part of their land to be used in this project. The Royal Park is also under threat when this road is constructed through it. This public input must take into consideration the interest of the local community. The issues raised about the park must be considered because strategic spatial land use planning involves ensuring that there is sustainability in land use. This means that the outcome of this project must be based on sustainability of land for the current and future generation. The Vict orian State Government must ensure that when this project commences, all the issues raised by the local community about sustainability is adequately addressed. List of References Albrechts, L 2006, ‘Shifts in strategic spatial planning? Some evidence from Europe and Australia’ Environment and Planning A’, vol. 38. no. 1, pp. 1149 -1170.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Barker, K 2006, Barker review of land use planning: Final report – recommendations, TSO, London. Chapin, T 2007, Growth management in Florida: Planning for paradise, Ashgate, Aldershot. Gaffikin, F Morrissey, M 2011, Planning in divided cities: Collaborative shaping of contested space, Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex. Jha, M Singh, R 2008, Land use: Reflection on spatial informatics, agriculture and development, Concept Publishers, New Delhi. Kawakami, M 2013, Spatial planning and sustainable development: Approaches for achieving sustainable urban form in Asian cities, Springer, Dordrecht. Koomen, E Beurden, J 2011, Land-use modelling in planning practice, Springer, Dordrecht. Potschin, M Haines-Young, R 2011, ‘Landscapes, sustainability and the place-based analysis of ecosystem services’, Landscape Ecol, vol. 1. no. 9, pp. 1-13. Scholl, B 2012, HESP: Higher education in spatial planning : positions and reflections, VDF, Zürich.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Assigment 5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Assigment 5 - Essay Example The web studio 5.0 is one of the most recent and reliable Web Design Software (Fowler and Victor 5). The program is a creation of the Back To The Beach Software Company. The program also offers 30 days trail for interested customers. The 30 days trail involves full web design operation and function, free website hosting and technology support. Despite being cheaper, the program has numerous useful applications. Net Objects Fusion Essentials is also another useful website program. The program also offers free services for individuals who are interested in using website services. Some of the basic features of the program entail ecommerce tools, photo gallery, quick times, flash builder, and rollover images. The Trendy Flash Site Builder is one of the most effective and reliable web design software. By using this program, an individual has the capability of creating SEO optimized website that has stunning tools and graphics. The programs also has other reliable features that include unl imited customizations, music library, text effects, pay pal integration as well as premade web site design. Compared to other programs, the Trendy Flash Site Builder is relatively cheap and affordable. Apache web server software is also reliable and effective web design software. ... Despite offering better services to its customers the programs is also cheap to learn and maintain. FrontPage Web Design Program is also reliable web design software. In order to use the program, the user needs to pay for the services and secure a license of using its services. This program is also created and supported by companies that have he will of making huge amount of profit. Huge number people can also use the services of this program at one specific time. The program also has a support team that offers 24 hours services to its customers (Plumley and Warren 67). Paint.NET is also reliable web design software that is accessible to huge number of website users. This web design software is copyrighted software that is available for both personal use and for downloading importance programs from the website. This program is free but the frequent users of the programs are requested to pay small contribution for the maintenance of the program. After paying the required registration fee, an individual become a permanent member with the authority of effectively using the program. Among the six common webs design software, the Web Studio 5.0 is one of the most reliable web design software. This is owing to the fact that the program is easy to learn and manage. The maintenance cost of the program is also friend among all website users. The programs also has drag interface and it is easy to drop. The program is also fasters and facilitate easy creation of professionals website. This web design software has various features such as video tutorial, menu maker and PayPal shopping cart. However, despite being one of the most reliable web design software, the program is relatively expensive compared to other programs. In addition, the process of acquiring the programs

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

This isn't a biogrphy, neither is it a novel, naturally, may be a Essay

This isn't a biogrphy, neither is it a novel, naturally, may be a cross between literature, sociology, and history (Annie Ernaux, a woman's story). Does this de - Essay Example The author depicts the raw emotion of writing about the events surrounding her mother and the loss of her mother, â€Å"I shall continue to write about my mother. She is the only woman who really meant something to me and she had been suffering from senile dementia for two years†(pg. 11). It is clear that the writing of her mother is therapeutic for Annie and she is doing so to some to terms with not only the death of her mother but also her relationship with her mother which was sometimes rocky. In the act of writing about her mother, Annie Emaux is keeping her alive to not only herself (Annie) but to others who will read this piece. In my opinion, it would truly be almost impossible to fabricate or fictionalize these accounts of the loss of a parent unless one had endured it first hand. If the author had wanted to fictionalize this, she most likely would have told the story from a third person perspective. Though sad, this piece is truly one that many mothers and daughters can relate to. It is not uncommon for one to lose a parent and in hind site, try to permanently categorize that parent as either a good parent or maybe a not so good parent, as Annie struggled with. It is through the grieving process that Annie comes to terms with her mother as a parent and as an individual. In conclusion, this piece was most likely not only rather accurate to the author and her memory of her mother, but also to many women who read this piece and identify with the mother-daughter relationship experienced by Annie and her mother.

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Human Resource Management in UK Hotel Industry

Human Resource Management in UK Hotel Industry 1 Introduction Human Resource Management is a consistent and productive approach towards the management of employees who are ‘valued assets to the organization. And managing resourceful humans requires a constant balancing between meeting the human aspirations of the people and meeting the strategic and financial needs of the business. Hence linking the HRM more explicitly to the strategic goals to improve the business and foster innovation and flexibility, thus serves the overall purpose. Through best possible use and application of HR policies in the organization, commitment can be encouraged thus leading to better performance, improve staff attitude and lower labour turnover, this is the ideal aim of the human resource practices which has been argued to neglect the fact that HR specialists and line managers have a major impact on how these HR policies are implemented at the hotels and whether all the HR practices are universally applicable. Human resource management is the techniques businesses incorporate to maintain an effective workforce to meet operational requirements. It is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, administration, organization development, employee motivation, wellness, benefits, safety, communication, performance management, and training. Human resource practices implemented in an organisation are used for recruitment, selection; training and development, reward management, performance appraisal etc. Human Resource Management strategically manages people and work place environment and culture. Effective HRM practices enable employees to contribute effectively and productively towards the attainment of the organizations goals and objectives facilitates overall company mission. HRM practices are one of the channels of communication for an organization with its employees it consists of the actual programs, processes and techniques. It conveys as to what the organization desires as valuable and appropriate behaviors. The workers on reception of such a message build up their own distinct perceptions and through a self-assessment (evaluation) process subsequently shape their attitude and behavior. For instance, if an organization implemented a training program for their workers, it will develop workers knowledge, skills and capability, and thus cultivate better employee commitment due to contented experience with the organization; however, such correlation may at times be misleading or unpredictable i.e. even though some employees may think this training as useful and recognize the implementation of organizational HRM practices, but on the contrary, other workers may see the program as non-effective and view it as a trouble that hamper their regular work timeta ble, hence this may work in an unintended way by bringing down their satisfaction with the organization and negatively effect their commitment. This is the very reason why employees individual view plays as a vital intermediary in the association between organizational HRM practices and the real disclosure of employees outlook and behaviors. Therefore, from this point of view, one can argue that HRM practices in its dominating effect alter an employees affective commitment, by first impinging upon their perception of organizational HRM practices and consequently further alter or transform their emotional commitment towards the organization. Thats why, by the means of implementation of high-commitment HRM practices, i.e. intensive training and development, high level of compensation, promotion from within, socialization, etc. convince the employees that the organizations purpose is in conformity with their insight, and it impinges upon them to reciprocate with advanced commitment and stronger deference to devote and put in for the organization. Therefore this research will try to establish a correlation between HR practices and their effects on employee commitment. The HR practices that will be examined in the research will be Selection and Recruitment Process, Training and Development programs, Performance management, Reward management and industrial labour relations. These are some of the main HR practices followed by the hotels aiming for the more committed team. But the researcher is interested in knowing whether these HR practices really result in more committed employees. And if these HR practices really result in committed employees then is it universally applicable in all countries of the world or all types of industries. These are some of the questions that have encouraged the researcher in conducting this research. 1.1 Research Aim The aim of this dissertation is to examine the HR practices implemented in UK hotels and their impact on employee commitment. 1.2 Objective The objectives of this research were to:- Examine the current HR practices prevalent in UK hotels. Evaluating these current HR practices against the existing literature to find out whether they match or not. Evaluating the factors leading to employee commitment and how many factors come by conducting HR practices in the company. 2 Literature review 2.1 Philosophy of Human Resource Management Human Resource Management is shifting its traditional stance from personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are being increasingly outsourced. HRM is now focusing more and more towards adding quality and value to the strategic exploitation of employees and that employee development programs impact the business in tangible terms. This new approach towards revolution in HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements in tangible terms to gauge the effect of these practices. Some of the HRM practices studied in this project are selection, benefits, training, performance feedback, communication systems, standard operating procedures (SOPs) and employee participation. David E. Guest (1987) says that human resource management is the tool for attainment of the managerial objectives in the organizations that have accepted the need for the optimum utilization of human resource to achieve competitive advantage and stay viable in their businesses. The primary objective of HRM is amalgamation of companys mission and goal with the HR practices. David E. Guest argues that formulation of a comprehensive corporate strategy is a major factor that decides the continuing business success of any organization.For matured managers human resource planning is not just a fundamental component of strategic planning, but somewhat flows from it. This holds especially true in todays context where the accomplishment of the process of adjusting to change warrants an escalating level of individual and group participation, for the seamless integration of human resources into the strategic plans. HRM also focuses to attain employee commitment, this involves classification of the type of commitment required e.g. attitudinal, behavioral. Commitment of an employee can be at different levels it could be towards the organization, to his job, for individual career advancement and numerous such like things. Commitment in an employees context can be defined as approval of enterprise mission and goals, and could be reflected in behaviour adopted by him/her that furthers these goals. David further proposes that theoretically the combination of organizational commitment and job related behavioral commitment constitutes a high degree of employee satisfaction, motivates them for high performance, longer tenure with their organisations and prepares them to willingly accept changes. The third goal of strategic HRM is to exercise flexibility and adaptability, which basically translates into the ability to manage change and innovation and to react swiftly to transforming market demands and changes. Thus arises a need for a HRM policy which is favorable to change at all levels of the organization, an arrangement which is practical not bureaucratic, functional and adaptable, with an absence of rigid job divisions and with capable of functional flexibility i.e. flexible skills and motivation to move from one assignment to another. Promoting these is possible only according to David if the employees at all levels exhibit a high degree of organizational commitment, their trust towards the organizational policies and have high levels of intrinsic motivation. Attaining and maintaining total quality is the fourth goal of HRM. This highlights the importance of policies and practices to recruit, development and retention of skilled and flexible employees, and the formulation of established performance standards and performance procedures. This can be further subdivide into two broader goals i.e. building a integrated organizational culture and achieving and maintaining competitive advantage through the dynamic use of human resources. Guest (2002) has argued that the effect of human resource management practices on overall performance of a firm will depend upon response of the employees to the implemented HRM practices; therefore the impact will be more or less a translation of the perception of HRM practices by the employee. Wood (1999) and Guest (2002) have stressed upon the need to build a competent, committed and highly involved work force is the one required for best implementation of business strategy. Huselid (1995) discovered that the effectiveness of employees is directly related to the impact of HRM practices on behavior of the workforce. Patterson et al (1997) while arguing about the effect of human resource management practices on business performance have said that HR practices in selection and training influence performance by providing appropriate skills. HR practices have a potent impact on performance even if it just measured in terms of overall productivity. Huselid (1995) stressed that the adoption of best practices in selection will lead to inflow of best quality of skill set ultimately will result in adding to the value towards the skills inventory of the organization. He also highlighted the role of personnel training as an accompaniment of selection practices through which the organizational culture and employee behavior can be integrated with the organization goals to produce positive results. Cooke (2000) has included competence and effectiveness as the vital ingredients of performance apart from competitiveness and productivity. She further amplifies training as the tool to grow knowledge and skills and as way of improving individuals performance (efficiency and effectiveness). Singh (2004), whose interpretations are more pertinent in our cultural context, says that compensation is a mechanism that aligns the behavior of employees with the firms business strategy. William et al, have argued that Career planning is a tool that wo rks in sync with the strategy and future HR needs of the organisation and encourages employee to attain their individual goals for personal development. By encouraging employee involvement, the firm will profit from increase in efficiency of theemployee due to improved commitment of the employee. Financial participation schemes are more beneficial for the organizations than the associated cost (Summers Hyman, 2005). In high growth industry use of best HR practices result in a stronger association with firms productivity (Datta et al, 2003). Wright et al (2003) have said that if proper performance management system is in place and is complemented by a just compensation system that is linked with the performance management system an employee will exert unrestricted effort to improve his performance. Similarly to improve performance the need is to clearly define the jobs. â€Å"Job definition is combination of job description and job specification. It clearly outlines duties, responsibilities, working conditions and expected skills of an individual performing that job† (Qureshi, 2006). Ichniowski (1995) while studying productivity of steel workers have argued that harmonizing HR practice System positively effects employees performance.Sels,2006 Collins (2005) in a study of similar character targeting small business have also argued that efficient HR practices affect employee productivity to a great extent. Meyer and Allen (1997) indicated that HRM practices have been considered to be valuable and effective tools for elevating organizational commitment, especially affective commitment. However, there are some other perspectives also on this subject; De Coninsk and Stilwell (1996) argued that what directly influences employees affective commitment is not the actual practices itself, but the employee perceptions of fairness of practices that affects organizational commitment. Ogilvie (1986) found that, even with personal and work characteristics controlled, employees perceptions of two characteristics of HRM practices, namely, the accuracy of the merit rating system and the fairness of promotions, contributed to the prediction of commitment. Gaertner and Nollen (1989) also found that employees commitment was related to the perceived HRM practices, including internal promotion, training opportunities, and employment security. Ostroff and Bowen (2000) made use of â€Å"meso† theory t o explain that the implementation of HRM practices helped to amplify workers identification with their organization through employees psychological contracts. Therefore, just as what the above mentioned scholars stated, the HRM practices itself cannot have impact on employees commitment, it is after the implementation of the HRM practices that triggered employees own perceptions and then assess whether the practice is considered fair or favorable to them and consequently influence their attitudes and behaviors. Therefore, if the HRM practices that an organization implements permit the employees to acknowledge it as highly committed, consequently, this will lead to reinforced trust and concurrently generate higher emotional attachment with his/her serviced organization. Despite several experiential studies that have established a relationship between HRM practices and organizational commitment, however, such a connection seems to be a little too straightforward (Paul Anantharaman, 2004; Ulrich, 1997; Wimalasiri, 1995). Ostroff and Bowen (2000) projected that it was the psychological bond of an individual that unified how an organizational HRM practice influenced employees mind-set and behavior. This also entails that HRM practices may conjointly manipulate employees organizational commitment obliquely, and must go through by means of individuals psychological alteration system. Guzzo and Noonan (1994) said that â€Å"An organizations HRM practices influenced employee commitment since they are communications from the employer to the employee. How employees interpreted and made sense of their organizational HRM practices affected their psychological contract with their employer and, ultimately, their commitment to that employer.† Zucker (1983) also suppose that the organization members attitudes and behaviors are subjective and are governed by organizations official communication of ‘common understandings. Term common understandings denoting what were considered the appropriate, essential and meaningful behaviors within an organization. Basically, the official organization communication of common understandings will direct its members to alter their own personal attitudes and behaviors so that they can match organizational expectations and requirements. 2.2 Human resources practices HRM propose that there is a universal ‘one best way to administer people. By assuming a best practice method it is argued that organizations will attain improved commitment from people leading to better organizational performance, top levels of service quality and eventually boost in efficiency and profitability, Usually couched in terms of ‘bundles, the HRM practices that are offered in support of a high commitment and performance model are generally fairly consistent. A range of HR practices which are suggested as being important to organizational strategies aimed at securing high-quality service are:- 2.3 Recruitment and Selection One of the main and most basic HRM practice is of Recruiting and selecting staff with the correct attitudinal and behavioral characteristics. The process of selection is AIMED at picking out the most probable candidate from a bunch of applicants who best suites the needs of the organisation. According to Vlachos the person who is most suitable is chosen based on his educational and/or professional qualifications and the focus of the whole process is to decrease the cost for the organisation and employ such employees who have merit and talent and can maximize the profits. A variety of considerations in the selection process should be employed to assess the work values, interpersonal skills, personality and problem-solving capabilities of likely employees to evaluate their ‘service orientation. To maintain the high degree of competitive advantage an organisation requires capable and skillful personnel (Liao Chu 2006). Huselid (1995) has established that organisational productivi ty and high degree of performance is dependant upon the selection of the appropriate person, which is also a way to reduce employee turnover. Michie and Sheehan-Quinn (2001) recognized a positive link between hiring employees, and the creation of the appropriate culture for organisational growth. Cho, et al. (2006) established a positive and considerable connection between HRM practices adopted by a firm and the various recruitment selection techniques implemented like the recruitment resource, screening test, behavioural tests interviews i.e. structured and unstructured to improve the fiscal performance. Therefore, it made compulsory for the organisations to attract qualified candidates and recruit them for survival and growth. 2.4 Performance Appraisal Performance appraisal has attracted an immense degree of interest. Levin (1986) identified uses of performance appraisal, like potential analysis which assesses the performance of the employee in past, need for training, remuneration expectations- salary, employee merit appraisal, suggestion for and by the employee, employee career development etc. Thang (2004) in his study has shown as to effect of suitable HRM related decision on how well employees are performing their jobs. Performance appraisal is a constant procedure rather than a once a year fatigue. It is an official arrangement where periodical assessment of an individuals or teams performance for a particular task is carried out and a feedback is given on the same. Stone (2002) said that in order to survive in a highly competitive environment a firm must focus on improving its performance. In addition, in the fast changing surroundings, tighter finances, downsizing and demands for enhanced responsibility and accountability on the part of the employees and thus result in more emphasis on performance appraisal in order to enable the management to attain the organisational objectives. To achieve optimum performance requirements performance related rewards target those who meet the expectations of the organisation (Stone 2002, Cho, et al. 2006, Chand Katou 2007). Information in regard to employee salary, training needs, compensation, promotion as well as employee development, transfer and employee fe edback is provided by performance appraisal (Huber 1983). Appraisal systems have also moved away from conventional top down approaches to appraisal in more modern and pertinent terms such as customer evaluation, team-based performance, the appraisal of managers by subordinates and peer review. Generally, all of these performance appraisal methods should focus on the quality objectives of the organization and the behaviors of employees required for maintaining these. Performance appraisal has both administrative and individual development focus and organizations sincerity towards performance appraisal goes a long way in developing commitment and trust among people. Overall attitude towards HRM department is a significant predictor of organizational commitment. This aspect of HRM practice refers to how people see their HRM department, with respect, with disdain, with indifference and so on. It refers to the fact that the acceptance of various HRM practices depend largely on the overall image of the HR department. Hospitality industry needs to rely on the commitment of a well-trained, multi-skilled workforce in order to achieve a competitive position, especially in terms of providing high quality customer service. This suggests that hotels need to adopt HRM organisational practices that enhance the motivation of employees and improve organisational effectiveness. 2.5 Reward Management Huselid (1995) asserts that compensation and employee merit are directly related and finally contribute towards the firm outcomes. Compensation by its definition means all payments in terms of money and all commodities provided in kind i.e. instead of financial to recompense employees. The reward system was organized to attract and motivate so as to keep employees. More so, employee influence was tailored on controlled authority and decision making. The expectancy theory (Vroom 1964) suggests that rewards, that can be comprehended as a form of direct and indirect recompense packages, have the ability to manipulate employee work enthusiasm. Thang (2004) suggests that to achieve concerted efforts from the employees to fulfill the organisational goals compensation and reward can be used as powerful tools. On the same lines, Wan (2008) argued that compensation should be measured depending on employees performance not on the basis of position or seniority in the organization.Pay practic e is one of the tools of human resources management practices which manage wage, salary, pay and benefits etc. for the employees. Reward management has got an important role in HRM. A high level of pay and remuneration in comparison to that of rivals ensures the attraction and retention of high-quality employee, however this may impact negatively on the companys overall labor expenditures. Also by connecting pay with performance, the company can educe desired standards of performance as well as specific task orientation from employee (Noe et al., 2006). Generally, pay practice is very significant for the organizations and firms which can attract employees to apply for the job as recruitment. Attractive pay practices play a major role in attracting talent and are very helpful during the recruitment process. Similarly for the employees this means that they are required to show a continuously high level of commitment and performance in order to keep their jobs. Pay packages also have a degree of connection with the job satisfaction of an employee. Ting (1997) asserts that the job satisfaction can be gauged by the pay structure. He further explains two different type of effect of pay practices on job satisfaction; first is the satisfaction with pay itself and second is the satisfaction with financial prospects in the future. There is a venerable interest of these two things which are correlated with job satisfaction. Thus, it is pertinent to understand the relationship between job satisfaction and pay practices which eventually materializes in terms of higher productivity. Efficiency wage theories also suggest that paying higher wages can often result in increased efficiency. There are three main channels that are addressed in these theories that improve productivity, as described by Katz, 1987. Firstly it means that the harder the employees of an organization work higher will be the punishment for someone who is caught shirking and higher w ill be the probability of losing job of the employee getting caught. Thus higher wages means an increased effort on part of the employee due to the enhanced probability of losing job in a high performance environment. In other words, wage and pay practice are directly responsible for employees productivity and turnover. Secondly, a higher wage translates directly into workers loyalty towards organization thus improving employees efforts. Also it is a pertinent deduction that higher wage structure plays considerable amount of restraint on the employees to turnover their jobs. Thirdly, in more tangible terms higher wages are responsible for reducing firm employee turnover and recruitment costs. 2.6 Training and Development ‘Training and development (TD) is a very important tool of HRM (Vlachos 2008). According to Li, et al. 2008 Training is the set of activities which prepare the employees to attain needed skill sets and to deliver more efficiently in their current jobs. In the environment of todays business an employee is needed to cope with various pressures and are required to keep their skills and knowledge current to stay competitive. Tai (2006) asserts that more adaptability, ability, flexibility, motivation, maintenance of skills and efficiency are greatly enhanced by proper training and development of employees. According to Vlachos training and firms performance are indirectly related. In most of the manufacturing industry, the prevailing training programs are mostly unstructured on the job is the most preferred mode. Bartel (1994) in her study found a positive and significant relation between training and labour productivity. Guidetti and Mazzanti (2007) found that high performance and training activities are positively associated. It is also affected by labour flexibility in various directions. Apospori, et al. (2008) in their study of southern European countries have discovered the impact of training on firms performance. Equipping of service level staff enables them towards ‘service orientation. Training is the planned effort that facilitates the acquisition of job related knowledge, updating of skill sets, and impacts the behavior of an employee. In the implementation of HRM tools training is an important factor responsible for productivity. Higher productivity observed in firms is a direct outcome of training programs. â€Å"High-Involvementpractices such as autonomy, team collaboration, and training are helpful in reducing employee turnover and enhance productivity. Untrained workers tend to change job more often. An increase in high-performance work practices converts into decrease in turnover† (Bradley, Petrescu Simmons, 2004). Training programs are particularly helpful when an employer is experiencing a high degree of employee turnover more so during the times of economic uncertainty. Even during the times when the business is flourishing an organization should proactively earmark their investment for on the job training and other training programs balancing the cost of training with the perceived benefits of productivity. On the other hand, a trained worker has got the required skills and knowledge and can be a candidate for job turnover. Therefore, job satisfaction is crucial factor to retain the employee from shifting his jobs. Bradley, Petrescu and Simmons (2004) explained that job satisfaction can be effectively imoproved by creating on-going learning as well as training in workplace; moreover their study indicates that training increases satisfaction levels of an employee which in turn enhances employee motivation and commitment. Therefore it is argued that acquisition or knowledge or training has a positive impact on job satisfaction. 2.7 Traditional and Recent HR Practices in Hospitality Industry Keep and Mayhew (1999) in their study regarding the personnel problems in the tourism and hospitality industry some of them areas follow: low pay, no fixed hours and shift. Poor career growth, seasonal employment; informal recruitment methods; lack of good HR practice; high attrition rate and retaining employees. Riley et al. (2000) to recognize the reality of traditional and poor HR practices, he said that determining factor for HR policies and practices in tourism and hospitality industry is the key economics. Riley et al. says that it carries a very important meaning in tourism and hospitality industry, as in this service sector there is every thing which is intangible. According to (ILO, 2001: 6).Employers and the organizational representatives consider employee turnover in the industry as not the major issue according to them it is the part of working they have not realized that what are its causes and reasons, retaining staff is costlier than hiring new for them. When the organizations will realize that poor HR practices like low pay benefits, lack career opportunities, work life imbalance are the main reason employee turnover. That day the organizations will be successful in real terms. The inability of the businesses and the industry to recognize the most glaring issues can be attributed to the hostility and opposition from employers associations in the industry such as British Hospitality Association (BHA), to governmental initiative such as the minimum wage and working time directive. BHA is still apprehensive of these initiatives despite support from other quarters who favor these initiatives (Lucas, 2004). It is to a great extend clear from the above researches which supports the fact that tourism and hospitality industry is a poor employing sector. Kelliher and Perrett (2001), Kelliher and Johnson (1997) have clearly said that â€Å"the dominant paradigm has tended to stress the negative aspects of working in the hospitality sector†. It is not surprising to see a long history that supports the fact that hospitality remains a poorly employing sector. Kelliher and Perrett (2001) did an analysis of a designer restaurant. These types of ventures were supposed to be implementing sophisticated HRM approaches as they aimed at building competitive advantage. Although the restaurant had adopted a more modern and sophisticated approach towards, training and development and focused on an innovative strategy ‘there was little real evidence that human resources were seen as a source of competitive advantage (p. 434). Instead, the HRM approaches adopted by the restaurant were much more reflective of immediate environmental constraints, such as the difficulties in recruiting and retaining staff. In short, any number of reasons for poor HR practices in the tourism and hospitality industry. Economic determinism, the predominance of SMEs, a low-skills base, employer antipathy to a more progressive approach to HRM, labour market characteristics, organizations ensuring best fit HRM practices to support a high volume, low-cost strategy; all are plausible reasons for a view of HRM which is not necessarily premised on high-skills, high-wages and a high-quality route to competitive advantage. That said, it would be equally wrong to paint a wholly pessimistic picture. Hoque (2000). On his work of good practice in the hotel sector, says that the hotels have started taking the issues seriously and have come up with good HR practices for the employee commitment. He further says that argues that arguments which give a picture of the industry as backward and un strategic is now outdated, hotels have started taking it seriously as there main aim is customer satisfaction which is possible only through strong employee commitment. In fact, he says that the management has become very serious regarding the practices and polices of HR .The hotels have started experimenting with innovation approaches, quality enhancement of HRM polices and practices. The hotels industry has started paying well, have revised appraisal system, proper training programs for employees skills development, schemes for proper balance between work and life, special advantages to women, job rotation, employee empowerment, performance based pay, teamwork etc. the implementation of all th ese polices and practices helps in gaining employee commitment and customer satisfaction. The focus of hospitality Human Resource Management in UK Hotel Industry Human Resource Management in UK Hotel Industry 1 Introduction Human Resource Management is a consistent and productive approach towards the management of employees who are ‘valued assets to the organization. And managing resourceful humans requires a constant balancing between meeting the human aspirations of the people and meeting the strategic and financial needs of the business. Hence linking the HRM more explicitly to the strategic goals to improve the business and foster innovation and flexibility, thus serves the overall purpose. Through best possible use and application of HR policies in the organization, commitment can be encouraged thus leading to better performance, improve staff attitude and lower labour turnover, this is the ideal aim of the human resource practices which has been argued to neglect the fact that HR specialists and line managers have a major impact on how these HR policies are implemented at the hotels and whether all the HR practices are universally applicable. Human resource management is the techniques businesses incorporate to maintain an effective workforce to meet operational requirements. It is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, administration, organization development, employee motivation, wellness, benefits, safety, communication, performance management, and training. Human resource practices implemented in an organisation are used for recruitment, selection; training and development, reward management, performance appraisal etc. Human Resource Management strategically manages people and work place environment and culture. Effective HRM practices enable employees to contribute effectively and productively towards the attainment of the organizations goals and objectives facilitates overall company mission. HRM practices are one of the channels of communication for an organization with its employees it consists of the actual programs, processes and techniques. It conveys as to what the organization desires as valuable and appropriate behaviors. The workers on reception of such a message build up their own distinct perceptions and through a self-assessment (evaluation) process subsequently shape their attitude and behavior. For instance, if an organization implemented a training program for their workers, it will develop workers knowledge, skills and capability, and thus cultivate better employee commitment due to contented experience with the organization; however, such correlation may at times be misleading or unpredictable i.e. even though some employees may think this training as useful and recognize the implementation of organizational HRM practices, but on the contrary, other workers may see the program as non-effective and view it as a trouble that hamper their regular work timeta ble, hence this may work in an unintended way by bringing down their satisfaction with the organization and negatively effect their commitment. This is the very reason why employees individual view plays as a vital intermediary in the association between organizational HRM practices and the real disclosure of employees outlook and behaviors. Therefore, from this point of view, one can argue that HRM practices in its dominating effect alter an employees affective commitment, by first impinging upon their perception of organizational HRM practices and consequently further alter or transform their emotional commitment towards the organization. Thats why, by the means of implementation of high-commitment HRM practices, i.e. intensive training and development, high level of compensation, promotion from within, socialization, etc. convince the employees that the organizations purpose is in conformity with their insight, and it impinges upon them to reciprocate with advanced commitment and stronger deference to devote and put in for the organization. Therefore this research will try to establish a correlation between HR practices and their effects on employee commitment. The HR practices that will be examined in the research will be Selection and Recruitment Process, Training and Development programs, Performance management, Reward management and industrial labour relations. These are some of the main HR practices followed by the hotels aiming for the more committed team. But the researcher is interested in knowing whether these HR practices really result in more committed employees. And if these HR practices really result in committed employees then is it universally applicable in all countries of the world or all types of industries. These are some of the questions that have encouraged the researcher in conducting this research. 1.1 Research Aim The aim of this dissertation is to examine the HR practices implemented in UK hotels and their impact on employee commitment. 1.2 Objective The objectives of this research were to:- Examine the current HR practices prevalent in UK hotels. Evaluating these current HR practices against the existing literature to find out whether they match or not. Evaluating the factors leading to employee commitment and how many factors come by conducting HR practices in the company. 2 Literature review 2.1 Philosophy of Human Resource Management Human Resource Management is shifting its traditional stance from personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are being increasingly outsourced. HRM is now focusing more and more towards adding quality and value to the strategic exploitation of employees and that employee development programs impact the business in tangible terms. This new approach towards revolution in HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements in tangible terms to gauge the effect of these practices. Some of the HRM practices studied in this project are selection, benefits, training, performance feedback, communication systems, standard operating procedures (SOPs) and employee participation. David E. Guest (1987) says that human resource management is the tool for attainment of the managerial objectives in the organizations that have accepted the need for the optimum utilization of human resource to achieve competitive advantage and stay viable in their businesses. The primary objective of HRM is amalgamation of companys mission and goal with the HR practices. David E. Guest argues that formulation of a comprehensive corporate strategy is a major factor that decides the continuing business success of any organization.For matured managers human resource planning is not just a fundamental component of strategic planning, but somewhat flows from it. This holds especially true in todays context where the accomplishment of the process of adjusting to change warrants an escalating level of individual and group participation, for the seamless integration of human resources into the strategic plans. HRM also focuses to attain employee commitment, this involves classification of the type of commitment required e.g. attitudinal, behavioral. Commitment of an employee can be at different levels it could be towards the organization, to his job, for individual career advancement and numerous such like things. Commitment in an employees context can be defined as approval of enterprise mission and goals, and could be reflected in behaviour adopted by him/her that furthers these goals. David further proposes that theoretically the combination of organizational commitment and job related behavioral commitment constitutes a high degree of employee satisfaction, motivates them for high performance, longer tenure with their organisations and prepares them to willingly accept changes. The third goal of strategic HRM is to exercise flexibility and adaptability, which basically translates into the ability to manage change and innovation and to react swiftly to transforming market demands and changes. Thus arises a need for a HRM policy which is favorable to change at all levels of the organization, an arrangement which is practical not bureaucratic, functional and adaptable, with an absence of rigid job divisions and with capable of functional flexibility i.e. flexible skills and motivation to move from one assignment to another. Promoting these is possible only according to David if the employees at all levels exhibit a high degree of organizational commitment, their trust towards the organizational policies and have high levels of intrinsic motivation. Attaining and maintaining total quality is the fourth goal of HRM. This highlights the importance of policies and practices to recruit, development and retention of skilled and flexible employees, and the formulation of established performance standards and performance procedures. This can be further subdivide into two broader goals i.e. building a integrated organizational culture and achieving and maintaining competitive advantage through the dynamic use of human resources. Guest (2002) has argued that the effect of human resource management practices on overall performance of a firm will depend upon response of the employees to the implemented HRM practices; therefore the impact will be more or less a translation of the perception of HRM practices by the employee. Wood (1999) and Guest (2002) have stressed upon the need to build a competent, committed and highly involved work force is the one required for best implementation of business strategy. Huselid (1995) discovered that the effectiveness of employees is directly related to the impact of HRM practices on behavior of the workforce. Patterson et al (1997) while arguing about the effect of human resource management practices on business performance have said that HR practices in selection and training influence performance by providing appropriate skills. HR practices have a potent impact on performance even if it just measured in terms of overall productivity. Huselid (1995) stressed that the adoption of best practices in selection will lead to inflow of best quality of skill set ultimately will result in adding to the value towards the skills inventory of the organization. He also highlighted the role of personnel training as an accompaniment of selection practices through which the organizational culture and employee behavior can be integrated with the organization goals to produce positive results. Cooke (2000) has included competence and effectiveness as the vital ingredients of performance apart from competitiveness and productivity. She further amplifies training as the tool to grow knowledge and skills and as way of improving individuals performance (efficiency and effectiveness). Singh (2004), whose interpretations are more pertinent in our cultural context, says that compensation is a mechanism that aligns the behavior of employees with the firms business strategy. William et al, have argued that Career planning is a tool that wo rks in sync with the strategy and future HR needs of the organisation and encourages employee to attain their individual goals for personal development. By encouraging employee involvement, the firm will profit from increase in efficiency of theemployee due to improved commitment of the employee. Financial participation schemes are more beneficial for the organizations than the associated cost (Summers Hyman, 2005). In high growth industry use of best HR practices result in a stronger association with firms productivity (Datta et al, 2003). Wright et al (2003) have said that if proper performance management system is in place and is complemented by a just compensation system that is linked with the performance management system an employee will exert unrestricted effort to improve his performance. Similarly to improve performance the need is to clearly define the jobs. â€Å"Job definition is combination of job description and job specification. It clearly outlines duties, responsibilities, working conditions and expected skills of an individual performing that job† (Qureshi, 2006). Ichniowski (1995) while studying productivity of steel workers have argued that harmonizing HR practice System positively effects employees performance.Sels,2006 Collins (2005) in a study of similar character targeting small business have also argued that efficient HR practices affect employee productivity to a great extent. Meyer and Allen (1997) indicated that HRM practices have been considered to be valuable and effective tools for elevating organizational commitment, especially affective commitment. However, there are some other perspectives also on this subject; De Coninsk and Stilwell (1996) argued that what directly influences employees affective commitment is not the actual practices itself, but the employee perceptions of fairness of practices that affects organizational commitment. Ogilvie (1986) found that, even with personal and work characteristics controlled, employees perceptions of two characteristics of HRM practices, namely, the accuracy of the merit rating system and the fairness of promotions, contributed to the prediction of commitment. Gaertner and Nollen (1989) also found that employees commitment was related to the perceived HRM practices, including internal promotion, training opportunities, and employment security. Ostroff and Bowen (2000) made use of â€Å"meso† theory t o explain that the implementation of HRM practices helped to amplify workers identification with their organization through employees psychological contracts. Therefore, just as what the above mentioned scholars stated, the HRM practices itself cannot have impact on employees commitment, it is after the implementation of the HRM practices that triggered employees own perceptions and then assess whether the practice is considered fair or favorable to them and consequently influence their attitudes and behaviors. Therefore, if the HRM practices that an organization implements permit the employees to acknowledge it as highly committed, consequently, this will lead to reinforced trust and concurrently generate higher emotional attachment with his/her serviced organization. Despite several experiential studies that have established a relationship between HRM practices and organizational commitment, however, such a connection seems to be a little too straightforward (Paul Anantharaman, 2004; Ulrich, 1997; Wimalasiri, 1995). Ostroff and Bowen (2000) projected that it was the psychological bond of an individual that unified how an organizational HRM practice influenced employees mind-set and behavior. This also entails that HRM practices may conjointly manipulate employees organizational commitment obliquely, and must go through by means of individuals psychological alteration system. Guzzo and Noonan (1994) said that â€Å"An organizations HRM practices influenced employee commitment since they are communications from the employer to the employee. How employees interpreted and made sense of their organizational HRM practices affected their psychological contract with their employer and, ultimately, their commitment to that employer.† Zucker (1983) also suppose that the organization members attitudes and behaviors are subjective and are governed by organizations official communication of ‘common understandings. Term common understandings denoting what were considered the appropriate, essential and meaningful behaviors within an organization. Basically, the official organization communication of common understandings will direct its members to alter their own personal attitudes and behaviors so that they can match organizational expectations and requirements. 2.2 Human resources practices HRM propose that there is a universal ‘one best way to administer people. By assuming a best practice method it is argued that organizations will attain improved commitment from people leading to better organizational performance, top levels of service quality and eventually boost in efficiency and profitability, Usually couched in terms of ‘bundles, the HRM practices that are offered in support of a high commitment and performance model are generally fairly consistent. A range of HR practices which are suggested as being important to organizational strategies aimed at securing high-quality service are:- 2.3 Recruitment and Selection One of the main and most basic HRM practice is of Recruiting and selecting staff with the correct attitudinal and behavioral characteristics. The process of selection is AIMED at picking out the most probable candidate from a bunch of applicants who best suites the needs of the organisation. According to Vlachos the person who is most suitable is chosen based on his educational and/or professional qualifications and the focus of the whole process is to decrease the cost for the organisation and employ such employees who have merit and talent and can maximize the profits. A variety of considerations in the selection process should be employed to assess the work values, interpersonal skills, personality and problem-solving capabilities of likely employees to evaluate their ‘service orientation. To maintain the high degree of competitive advantage an organisation requires capable and skillful personnel (Liao Chu 2006). Huselid (1995) has established that organisational productivi ty and high degree of performance is dependant upon the selection of the appropriate person, which is also a way to reduce employee turnover. Michie and Sheehan-Quinn (2001) recognized a positive link between hiring employees, and the creation of the appropriate culture for organisational growth. Cho, et al. (2006) established a positive and considerable connection between HRM practices adopted by a firm and the various recruitment selection techniques implemented like the recruitment resource, screening test, behavioural tests interviews i.e. structured and unstructured to improve the fiscal performance. Therefore, it made compulsory for the organisations to attract qualified candidates and recruit them for survival and growth. 2.4 Performance Appraisal Performance appraisal has attracted an immense degree of interest. Levin (1986) identified uses of performance appraisal, like potential analysis which assesses the performance of the employee in past, need for training, remuneration expectations- salary, employee merit appraisal, suggestion for and by the employee, employee career development etc. Thang (2004) in his study has shown as to effect of suitable HRM related decision on how well employees are performing their jobs. Performance appraisal is a constant procedure rather than a once a year fatigue. It is an official arrangement where periodical assessment of an individuals or teams performance for a particular task is carried out and a feedback is given on the same. Stone (2002) said that in order to survive in a highly competitive environment a firm must focus on improving its performance. In addition, in the fast changing surroundings, tighter finances, downsizing and demands for enhanced responsibility and accountability on the part of the employees and thus result in more emphasis on performance appraisal in order to enable the management to attain the organisational objectives. To achieve optimum performance requirements performance related rewards target those who meet the expectations of the organisation (Stone 2002, Cho, et al. 2006, Chand Katou 2007). Information in regard to employee salary, training needs, compensation, promotion as well as employee development, transfer and employee fe edback is provided by performance appraisal (Huber 1983). Appraisal systems have also moved away from conventional top down approaches to appraisal in more modern and pertinent terms such as customer evaluation, team-based performance, the appraisal of managers by subordinates and peer review. Generally, all of these performance appraisal methods should focus on the quality objectives of the organization and the behaviors of employees required for maintaining these. Performance appraisal has both administrative and individual development focus and organizations sincerity towards performance appraisal goes a long way in developing commitment and trust among people. Overall attitude towards HRM department is a significant predictor of organizational commitment. This aspect of HRM practice refers to how people see their HRM department, with respect, with disdain, with indifference and so on. It refers to the fact that the acceptance of various HRM practices depend largely on the overall image of the HR department. Hospitality industry needs to rely on the commitment of a well-trained, multi-skilled workforce in order to achieve a competitive position, especially in terms of providing high quality customer service. This suggests that hotels need to adopt HRM organisational practices that enhance the motivation of employees and improve organisational effectiveness. 2.5 Reward Management Huselid (1995) asserts that compensation and employee merit are directly related and finally contribute towards the firm outcomes. Compensation by its definition means all payments in terms of money and all commodities provided in kind i.e. instead of financial to recompense employees. The reward system was organized to attract and motivate so as to keep employees. More so, employee influence was tailored on controlled authority and decision making. The expectancy theory (Vroom 1964) suggests that rewards, that can be comprehended as a form of direct and indirect recompense packages, have the ability to manipulate employee work enthusiasm. Thang (2004) suggests that to achieve concerted efforts from the employees to fulfill the organisational goals compensation and reward can be used as powerful tools. On the same lines, Wan (2008) argued that compensation should be measured depending on employees performance not on the basis of position or seniority in the organization.Pay practic e is one of the tools of human resources management practices which manage wage, salary, pay and benefits etc. for the employees. Reward management has got an important role in HRM. A high level of pay and remuneration in comparison to that of rivals ensures the attraction and retention of high-quality employee, however this may impact negatively on the companys overall labor expenditures. Also by connecting pay with performance, the company can educe desired standards of performance as well as specific task orientation from employee (Noe et al., 2006). Generally, pay practice is very significant for the organizations and firms which can attract employees to apply for the job as recruitment. Attractive pay practices play a major role in attracting talent and are very helpful during the recruitment process. Similarly for the employees this means that they are required to show a continuously high level of commitment and performance in order to keep their jobs. Pay packages also have a degree of connection with the job satisfaction of an employee. Ting (1997) asserts that the job satisfaction can be gauged by the pay structure. He further explains two different type of effect of pay practices on job satisfaction; first is the satisfaction with pay itself and second is the satisfaction with financial prospects in the future. There is a venerable interest of these two things which are correlated with job satisfaction. Thus, it is pertinent to understand the relationship between job satisfaction and pay practices which eventually materializes in terms of higher productivity. Efficiency wage theories also suggest that paying higher wages can often result in increased efficiency. There are three main channels that are addressed in these theories that improve productivity, as described by Katz, 1987. Firstly it means that the harder the employees of an organization work higher will be the punishment for someone who is caught shirking and higher w ill be the probability of losing job of the employee getting caught. Thus higher wages means an increased effort on part of the employee due to the enhanced probability of losing job in a high performance environment. In other words, wage and pay practice are directly responsible for employees productivity and turnover. Secondly, a higher wage translates directly into workers loyalty towards organization thus improving employees efforts. Also it is a pertinent deduction that higher wage structure plays considerable amount of restraint on the employees to turnover their jobs. Thirdly, in more tangible terms higher wages are responsible for reducing firm employee turnover and recruitment costs. 2.6 Training and Development ‘Training and development (TD) is a very important tool of HRM (Vlachos 2008). According to Li, et al. 2008 Training is the set of activities which prepare the employees to attain needed skill sets and to deliver more efficiently in their current jobs. In the environment of todays business an employee is needed to cope with various pressures and are required to keep their skills and knowledge current to stay competitive. Tai (2006) asserts that more adaptability, ability, flexibility, motivation, maintenance of skills and efficiency are greatly enhanced by proper training and development of employees. According to Vlachos training and firms performance are indirectly related. In most of the manufacturing industry, the prevailing training programs are mostly unstructured on the job is the most preferred mode. Bartel (1994) in her study found a positive and significant relation between training and labour productivity. Guidetti and Mazzanti (2007) found that high performance and training activities are positively associated. It is also affected by labour flexibility in various directions. Apospori, et al. (2008) in their study of southern European countries have discovered the impact of training on firms performance. Equipping of service level staff enables them towards ‘service orientation. Training is the planned effort that facilitates the acquisition of job related knowledge, updating of skill sets, and impacts the behavior of an employee. In the implementation of HRM tools training is an important factor responsible for productivity. Higher productivity observed in firms is a direct outcome of training programs. â€Å"High-Involvementpractices such as autonomy, team collaboration, and training are helpful in reducing employee turnover and enhance productivity. Untrained workers tend to change job more often. An increase in high-performance work practices converts into decrease in turnover† (Bradley, Petrescu Simmons, 2004). Training programs are particularly helpful when an employer is experiencing a high degree of employee turnover more so during the times of economic uncertainty. Even during the times when the business is flourishing an organization should proactively earmark their investment for on the job training and other training programs balancing the cost of training with the perceived benefits of productivity. On the other hand, a trained worker has got the required skills and knowledge and can be a candidate for job turnover. Therefore, job satisfaction is crucial factor to retain the employee from shifting his jobs. Bradley, Petrescu and Simmons (2004) explained that job satisfaction can be effectively imoproved by creating on-going learning as well as training in workplace; moreover their study indicates that training increases satisfaction levels of an employee which in turn enhances employee motivation and commitment. Therefore it is argued that acquisition or knowledge or training has a positive impact on job satisfaction. 2.7 Traditional and Recent HR Practices in Hospitality Industry Keep and Mayhew (1999) in their study regarding the personnel problems in the tourism and hospitality industry some of them areas follow: low pay, no fixed hours and shift. Poor career growth, seasonal employment; informal recruitment methods; lack of good HR practice; high attrition rate and retaining employees. Riley et al. (2000) to recognize the reality of traditional and poor HR practices, he said that determining factor for HR policies and practices in tourism and hospitality industry is the key economics. Riley et al. says that it carries a very important meaning in tourism and hospitality industry, as in this service sector there is every thing which is intangible. According to (ILO, 2001: 6).Employers and the organizational representatives consider employee turnover in the industry as not the major issue according to them it is the part of working they have not realized that what are its causes and reasons, retaining staff is costlier than hiring new for them. When the organizations will realize that poor HR practices like low pay benefits, lack career opportunities, work life imbalance are the main reason employee turnover. That day the organizations will be successful in real terms. The inability of the businesses and the industry to recognize the most glaring issues can be attributed to the hostility and opposition from employers associations in the industry such as British Hospitality Association (BHA), to governmental initiative such as the minimum wage and working time directive. BHA is still apprehensive of these initiatives despite support from other quarters who favor these initiatives (Lucas, 2004). It is to a great extend clear from the above researches which supports the fact that tourism and hospitality industry is a poor employing sector. Kelliher and Perrett (2001), Kelliher and Johnson (1997) have clearly said that â€Å"the dominant paradigm has tended to stress the negative aspects of working in the hospitality sector†. It is not surprising to see a long history that supports the fact that hospitality remains a poorly employing sector. Kelliher and Perrett (2001) did an analysis of a designer restaurant. These types of ventures were supposed to be implementing sophisticated HRM approaches as they aimed at building competitive advantage. Although the restaurant had adopted a more modern and sophisticated approach towards, training and development and focused on an innovative strategy ‘there was little real evidence that human resources were seen as a source of competitive advantage (p. 434). Instead, the HRM approaches adopted by the restaurant were much more reflective of immediate environmental constraints, such as the difficulties in recruiting and retaining staff. In short, any number of reasons for poor HR practices in the tourism and hospitality industry. Economic determinism, the predominance of SMEs, a low-skills base, employer antipathy to a more progressive approach to HRM, labour market characteristics, organizations ensuring best fit HRM practices to support a high volume, low-cost strategy; all are plausible reasons for a view of HRM which is not necessarily premised on high-skills, high-wages and a high-quality route to competitive advantage. That said, it would be equally wrong to paint a wholly pessimistic picture. Hoque (2000). On his work of good practice in the hotel sector, says that the hotels have started taking the issues seriously and have come up with good HR practices for the employee commitment. He further says that argues that arguments which give a picture of the industry as backward and un strategic is now outdated, hotels have started taking it seriously as there main aim is customer satisfaction which is possible only through strong employee commitment. In fact, he says that the management has become very serious regarding the practices and polices of HR .The hotels have started experimenting with innovation approaches, quality enhancement of HRM polices and practices. The hotels industry has started paying well, have revised appraisal system, proper training programs for employees skills development, schemes for proper balance between work and life, special advantages to women, job rotation, employee empowerment, performance based pay, teamwork etc. the implementation of all th ese polices and practices helps in gaining employee commitment and customer satisfaction. The focus of hospitality