Thursday, December 26, 2019

Essay on Vission, Mission and Nursing Philosophy - 1008 Words

Vision, Mission and Nursing Philosophy Mercedes Condom RN University of Phoenix NUR 588 10/13/2014 Every health care organization in the United Stated has a mission statement and a vision. We also can say that the mission and vision guides the organization purpose of service and practice. This is also true for colleges and universities. We also have an understanding that creating a philosophy that supports the values of the organization is essential. Therefore, when the project is in the formulation state, the members have to clear understanding of their own beliefs and value. Baptist Health of South Florida mission and vision statement are in nature related to helping our community†¦show more content†¦Baptist Health will be a national and international leader in healthcare innovation (BHSF 2014). BHSF nursing philosophy is based on the Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring/Caring Science. By having a nursing theorist base practice, the development of a nursing philosophy becomes lucid. BHSF nursing philosophy stated as follow, NURSING PHILOSOPHY The nursing staff of BSHF is committed to maintaining the highest standards of nursing care and service excellence. This care is fostered through the nursing process--assessment, diagnosis, identification of outcomes, planning, implementation, and evaluation. We believe the primary purpose of nursing is to provide culturally congruent, non-discriminatory, safe and beneficial care to the patient, family, and significant others. Healing is promoted by competent staff, providing culturally congruent care, while educating patients / families and significant others in the caring process. Education of patients / families and significant others promotes independence, self-care and bio-psycho-social healing. Nursing Services advocates participative management through shared responsibility and accountability. We foster and encourage nursing autonomy and professional development through competency development, education and training. The

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Analysis Of The Poem Laundry - 1205 Words

The Life of Laundry Laundry embodies only two forms, clean or dirty, and in order to pursue the clean one must experience the dirty. This is the unfair paradoxical reality that is pushed so far in â€Å"Love Calls Us to the Things of the World†. In this case the laundry holds the form of the soul, providing characteristics of cleanliness and innocence. But once the soul is put on for the day, the day slowly chips away that innocence and paints of dirt collect. The clean is the wonderful spiritual world; whereas, the dirt is the physical world. Reality kicks in at the end of the poem to insure the soul that there still is a physical world to attend to; however strong the essence of the spiritual is. Through diction, organization, and literary devices Richard Wilbur creates this struggle of the soul between the spiritual and physical world in â€Å"Love Calls Us to the Things of the World†. Word choice in this poem is, at its core, so simple, yet its aura persuades the complexity of the conflict. First off, there consists of two opposite collections of words that separate and create the two tones. Words such as: â€Å"soul†, â€Å"angels†, â€Å"flying†, and â€Å"joy† create the world of the spiritual and the obvious favorability of it. In lines two and three the first clue to the spiritual is granted, â€Å"And spirited from sleep, the astounded soul/Hangs for a moment bodiless and simple† (Wilbur).Other than the use of â€Å"spirited†, the personification of the soul as hanging and â€Å"bodiless† suggests that it’sShow MoreRelated Reflective Essay on College Writing839 Words   |  4 Pagesthem to our writing. Most of the writing we did was simply based upon our own opinions. We hardly ever used secondary sources. I believe that deconstructionist theory was the most helpful theory I learned this year for analy zing literature. Breaking a poem up line by line or image by image or even a story into small sections made it a lot easier to grasp the main concepts of the work. Most of the time during this semester, however, I took a formalist point of view. Also, unlike high school, the readingRead MoreImagery Of Women By Adrienne Rich1540 Words   |  7 Pagesher use of political issues in her poems. She considers herself a socialist because â€Å"socialism represents moral values – the dignity and human rights of all citizens† (Daily News). In one of her poems, â€Å"Necessities of life,† Rich focused on death. Adrienne Rich got a negative reaction to her earlier poem â€Å"Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law† which was her first overly feminist poem (Marilyn Hacker) and thought she had failed, so she focused on death in her next poem â€Å"as a sign of how erased she felt whenRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Quinceanera And Rite Of Passage1538 Words   |  7 PagesSayelly Olivo AP Literature Miss Fields 23 October 2017 Poem Analysis Many time we spent our whole childhood wishing we were older and now we’re spending our adulthood wishing to be younger. In the poems â€Å"Quinceanera† and â€Å"Rite of Passage† both Cofer and Olds explore the theme of the coming of age and we acquire to truly live up to those adult characteristic that are found within every child , the authors use various literary devices, such as imagery, tone, and figurative language. Cofer portraysRead MoreA Literary Analysis Of Girl By Jamaica Kincaid1927 Words   |  8 PagesLanguage, Culture, and a Mother s’ Influence: A Literary Analysis of Girl by Jamaica Kincaid Girls, young women, and mature mothers. Society has consistently given women strict guidelines, rules and principles on how to be an appropriate member of a man’s society. These rules are set at a young age and enforced thoroughly into adulthood. When not followed accordingly, women often times too many face reprimanding through means of verbal abuse, physical abuse, or social exile. In the midst of allRead MoreAnalysis Of The Yellow Wallpaper Short Story1174 Words   |  5 Pages â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† Analysis Short Story Fiction Whether a story is fictional or not there’s a significance to the author or anything that could relate to today’s society of life, back in time, or it’s a story written to entertain the reader. Some authors write stories to tell the reader how one must look deeper into their story to be able to interpret their story to fully comprehend and to realize how the author is trying to make a point. After reading â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† the reader couldRead MoreAnalysis Of Robyn Schiff s A Woman Of Property1785 Words   |  8 Pagesconsidered as a light switch in a room that is in darkness. However, Schiff’s poems more deliberately try to blur the brightness of a fancy that is a little incisive. The poems, in this third volume of her poetry work, promise to save her from uncertainties, worries, and fears, yet they are to be blamed for arousing up these worries, fears, and uncertainties in the very first place. This paper will critically analyze and com pare two poems, â€Å"Nursery Furniture† and â€Å"Siren Test,† from Schiff’s A Woman of PropertyRead More Analysis of Daystar by Rita Dove Essay1896 Words   |  8 Pages While reading the poem â€Å"Daystar,† written by Rita Dove, its readers most likely do not ask thought-provoking questions like â€Å"Why did Dove write this?† or â€Å"What is the true meaning behind this poem?† but the poem has deeper meaning than what its outside layer portrays. Dove, an African American woman born in 1952, has not only viewed the racism of the United States society, but she has also seen how gender can or cannot play a role in the advancement of a person’s life (Rita Dove: The Poetry Foundation)Read MoreAn Evaluation of Nature Poetry in Reference to Plath, Huges and Keats.1876 Words   |  8 Pagescertain poems, how imagery is detailed and explain rhyming patterns that have been used as well as giving my own analysis of my selected poems. The first poet I want to look at is Sylvia Plath (1932-1963). Plaths work intrigues me, as does her life. After losing her farther at the age of eight, she suppressed her inner feelings and instead of reaching out to other people for comfort, she isolated herself with writing as her only expressive outlet. Then remarkably, Sylvia Plath had a poem publishedRead MoreDeath And Dying By Isaac Asimov2739 Words   |  11 Pagesstate of mind, or even to tell a story. Among these we find narrative poetry, epic poetry, satirical and lyrical poetry, but perhaps the one that applies to the theme of death and dying is the elegy. An elegy is a mournful, melancholy, or plaintive poem, which is normally used as a means of dealing with death or as a consolation. We are looking to find how death and dying have been treated in poetry, and compare and contrast how the idea is perceived. Since the dawn of literacy, death and dying haveRead MoreRepresentation of Female Characters in Italian Television Commercials1444 Words   |  6 PagesOld fashioned images Apparently, very little seems changed since the time of the Goffman’s analysis. His search is not entirely comparable with the GEMMA ones, because it refers to different times, contexts, and media, but the majority of the detected representations has more than one point of contact with the survey of the Canadian sociologist. In particular, the Goffman’s role function, ie the association between masculinity and positions of power and femininity and secondary tasks, often related

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Leadership in Healthcare for Perspectives -

Question: Discuss about theLeadership in Healthcare for Concepts and Perspectives. Answer: Introduction According to Alligood (2017), leadership is the way individuals behave when directing the members of a group who have shared goals. There are several types of leadership. These include transactional, transformational and situational. Transactional leadership employs use of rewards and punishments. In this kind of leadership, the employees follow the dictates of leaders. Those employees who perform well and as expected are rewarded and those that do not meet the expectations are punished. Behaviours that are rewarded will most likely be repeated while those that are punished will be avoided in future (Giltinane, 2013). This type of leadership may be very important in emergency situations and may leave both the hard-working nurses and their patients happy. The nurse will be happy because of the reward while the patient is happy for effective treatment. Transformational leadership on the other hand involves a leader with a vision. These leaders have some future changes that they would w ant to see in the organizations they lead (Fischer, 2016). In some cases, the change to be achieved is planned by leaders in conjunction with the subordinates. The change is described clearly and concisely, and it is regularly communicated to employees. Each member of the organization is expected to be working in a way that will lead to the foreseen change. This form of leadership would be of great importance to the nursing profession. Goals could be set and communicated concisely. Such goals should be geared towards improved working conditions for nurses and improved clinical outcomes for patients. Situational leadership stipulates that there no single best way of leading. The leader will be most effective if they adapt to the current needs of the organization (Carsten, Uhl-Bien, West, Patera, and McGregor, 2010). This leadership style is flexible and is ready to accommodate any outcomes of the future. No one knows what the future holds. A leadership style that gives room for any developments of the future seem to be a wiser one. In the nursing profession and the medical one in general, discoveries continue to be made. This style of leadership seems to be the best suited for the profession. As indicated by Wong (2015), effective leadership has been shown to bring about positive transformation in almost all areas where it was applied. This essay will discuss the importance of strong leadership in health care. This will be covered under the following topics: important nursing leadership qualities, leadership and workplace culture, leadership staff turnover and job satisfaction an d leadership and quality care. Important Nursing Leadership Qualities Nurses in leadership deal less with patients and their responsibilities shift more to managing other nurses and keeping their eye on the aim and vision care provision. A nurse in a leadership position can influence the operations of not only the other nurses but also of the whole system of care provision. Leadership is pivotal and significantly affects the nature of care provision including the workplace culture of employees. As Grossman and Valiga (2016) argues,the goal of effective nursing is ensuring highest quality of care is offered in an environment where ethical principles are observed and where both the work force and the patient/clients feel valued. Discussed next are some important nursing leadership qualities. First is strong communication. As a leader, the nurse should be sure to master the art of communication. Daily, the leader will interact with a numerous number of people be it other nurses, doctors and other healthcare staff. Having good skills of communication will enable the leader to effectively communicate strategies, needs and instructions in a clear, concise and easily understandable manner. The other important quality is delegation. The leader should have an in-depth understanding of the other members of the healthcare team. In addition to that understanding, the leader should ensure that they trust other members. Such a move would help the leader be able to delegate roles since it is practically impossible to expect to accomplish all roles by themselves. Different members of the team have different strengths and weaknesses. This will help in identifying who to delegate certain roles. By delegating role based on such knowledge, there is a high likelihood that others will be more efficient. Overall, the process of care improved, and the employees are more motivated. The third important leadership quality is being business-mindedness. The administrative side of leadership will require that the nurse have a business mind. This is because there will be a lot of dealing with budgets, scheduling, inventory management and other issues that may require business knowledge (Nieswiadomy and Bailey, 2017). Though these will be done by an expert in the area, it is important that the leader know what is happening and be able to guide the procedures well. The fourth quality is empathy. Empathy is the ability of being able to understand the other person (fitting in their shoes) but remaining to be yourself. The leader should be able to empathise with fellow nurses. In this case, the nurse has been there before and should listen to the issues presented by others empathetically. The final quality to be discussed is conflict resolution. Problems and challenges arise in our every day life. How we respond to these challenges is important to our progress. A leader should have effective ways to resolve any challenges or conflicts that might arise in the workplace (Delgado and Mitchell, 2016). This could involve constructive criticism to nurses while still maintaining respect for them. Leadership and Workplace Culture Leaders have an enormous influence on organizational culture. The way the leaders talk, and act will influence the organizational culture in some way. The behaviour of a leader inevitably affects the workplace culture. Therefore, a leader who wishes to develop a strong workplace culture will take a close look at their lives and make sure they are influencing the workforce towards that. Accountability is a great quality for a leader who wants to create a work place culture that they would want. Following are some ways through which leaders influence or could influence the workplace culture. The first way is through modelling behaviours. According to Hyde, Bresnen, Hodgson, Bailey and Hassard (2014), it is very hard for a leader to make staff adopt a certain practice or culture if they have not adopted it themselves. If a leader wants their team to change in some way, they should serve as an example. When they do this, there is a high likelihood that other team members will follow suit. In a situation where the leader encourages the team members to adopt a certain change, but they do not themselves, chances of achieving the change are very minimal. It seems therefore, that to be effective in achieving a desired workplace culture, leaders should be the first to demonstrate the culture by their words and actions. The second way is establishing a purpose to believe in. Members of the team being led work better if they know what exactly is expected of them and how it impacts the organization. Where this is lacking, there is some sort of vacuum and employees may lose a sense of direction. On the other hand, when the purpose is clearly and precisely provided, the team members view their employment status as an opportunity to connect with the leader and head towards a certain direction. Each staff member should be briefed on what is expected of them and how that is important to the organization. The commitment and sense of direction that results leads to a strong workplace culture. Leaders should also set expectations and come up with mechanisms to help the team members meet them. As demonstrated by Blais (2015),when these members are provided with the tools and resources needed to fit within the organizational culture, they are empowered. A strong workplace culture where staff are committed and dedicated results. Another way through which leaders can shape the workplace culture is via reinforcing a culture of accountability (Phillips, Stalter, Dolansky and Lopez, 2016). When leaders hold people accountable of their action, such people tend to be more dedicated in their jobs. Where people are not held accountable, instructions may just but fall on deaf ears. Accountability could be ensured by ways such as having detailed job descriptions where it is clear who should be doing what, when and how. Leadership, Staff Turnover and Job Satisfaction There is a strong correlation between poor leadership and staff turnover. Leaders who act as dictators and fail to give their employees a listening ear, contribute to staff turnover (McCann, 2015). It is true that the way an employee is treated by their leaders will greatly contribute to their willingness to continue with their jobs and be satisfied. When the leader issues orders without caring the about the opinion of team members, the chances of turnover of the team members increase and they may eventually leave the job. Leaders therefore have a key role in ensuring job satisfaction of the staff members. Another way through which poor leadership could contribute to employee turn over is through failure to keep promises. In a situation where a leader keeps on failing to deliver their promises, the employees may become demotivated and quit their jobs (Laschinger et al, 2014). What failure to keep promises does is to make the employee/staff feel lied to and consequently lose interest in their jobs. They become unsatisfied with what they do since they know that any promise made will not be kept (Morton, Fontaine, Hudak and Gallo, 2017).Eventually, this manifests as staff turnover. If an organization lacks proper communication channels, it is not clear who is supposed to be doing what, when and how. It is also likely that the efforts of the employees will neither be noticed nor rewarded. Poor communication is a sign of poor leadership since good leadership invests in effective communication (Bercaw, 2016). When employees efforts can neither be noticed nor rewarded, their morale diminishes and are no longer dedicated. They lose satisfaction and eventually leads to quitting. For an organization to boost the employee morale and keep them satisfied with what they do, leaders should ensure that there are proper communication channel and that employees who do well in their jobs are recognized and rewarded (Giger, 2016). Leadership and Care Quality There is a significant relationship between leadership and quality of care. For instance, studies show that substantial associations between leadership and satisfaction of patients. Good leadership leads to increased quality of care while poor leadership deteriorates the quality of care (Cherry and Jacob, 2016). Some ways in which leadership influences the quality of care are going to be discussed next. Good leadership ensures that nurses and other members of the healthcare team are satisfied. Satisfaction boosts morale and they become committed to their jobs. They appreciate their pivotal role in offering care to patients/clients (Spears and Lawrence, 2016). With this approach, they offer the best quality of care that they can. In this way, the patient gets the best care that they could receive from healthcare providers. Another way through which good leadership leads to improved quality of care is through installation of the necessary systems (McCann, 2015). Good leadership is concerned with the highest level of care and therefore endeavours to put in in place as many as necessary systems for offering of care. This might include ensuring that there are enough wards, healthcare staff and other necessary factor such as drugs required. Good leadership focuses on effective procedures and processes. It also ensures proper communication channels are in place. In addition, it recognizes and awards efforts of the employees. According to Bayley, Chambers and Donovan (2016),these factors come together to form close collaboration between the management and the staff. The staff are free to air any problem or challenges freely. Patients/clients are also given the same opportunity. The feedback obtained is compiled together and used to address the problems and challenges accordingly. In this way, the quality of care continuously remains at peak. Conclusion In conclusion, there are several types of leadership which include transactional, transformational and situational. Leadership in nursing influences the operations in a healthcare facility and inevitably affects the quality of care. When leaders possess important qualities such as strong communication, business mindedness, delegation and conflict resolution, they relate closely with fellow nurses and bring great positive transformation in the process of offering care. Leadership is also implicated in workplace culture. Good leadership leads to a strong workplace culture and satisfied staff. There has been shown to exist a significant relationship between leadership, staff turnover and job satisfaction. Poor leadership increases the chances of staff turnover and job satisfaction. Good leadership is associate with improved quality of care. References Alligood, M. R. (2017).Nursing Theorists and Their Work-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. doi: 9780323402248 Bayley, H., Chambers, R., Donovan, C. (2016).The good mentoring toolkit for healthcare. CRC Press. doi: 9781857756494 Bercaw, R. (2016).Lean leadership for healthcare: approaches to lean transformation. Productivity Press. doi: 9781466515543 Blais, K. (2015).Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives. Pearson. doi: PGM35055 Carsten, M. K., Uhl-Bien, M., West, B. J., Patera, J. L., McGregor, R. (2010). Exploring social constructions of followership: A qualitative study.The Leadership Quarterly,21(3), 543-562. Cherry, B., Jacob, S. R. (2016).Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends, management. Elsevier Health Sciences. doi: 0323101097 Delgado, C., Mitchell, M. M. (2016). A survey of current valued academic leadership qualities in nursing.Nursing education perspectives,37(1), 10-15. doi: 27164771 Fischer, S. A. (2016). Transformational leadership in nursing: a concept analysis.Journal of advanced nursing,72(11), 2644-2653. Giger, J. N. (2016).Transcultural Nursing-E-Book: Assessment and Intervention. Elsevier Health Sciences. doi: 978-0-323-39992-0. Giltinane, C. L. (2013). Leadership styles and theories.Nursing Standard (through 2013),27(41), 35. Grohar-Murray, M. E., DiCroce, H. R., Langan, J. C. (2016).Leadership and management in nursing. Pearson. doi: PGM294820. Grossman, S., Valiga, T. M. (2016).The new leadership challenge: Creating the future of nursing. FA Davis. Hyde, P., Bresnen, M., Hodgson, D. E., Bailey, S., Hassard, J. (2014, January). Leadership talk: Discourses of management and leadership in healthcare. InAcademy of Management Proceedings. Academy of Management Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510. doi: abs/10.5465/ambpp Kumar, R. D., Khiljee, N. (2016). Leadership in healthcare.Anaesthesia Intensive Care Medicine,17(1), 63-65. doi: 1e906e6e83417d976a3d65d7e4822b21/1 Laschinger, H. K. S., Wong, C. A., Cummings, G. G., Grau, A. L., Davis-Ajami, M. L., Costa, L., ... Hawkins, P. (2014). Resonant Leadership and Workplace Empowerment: The Value of Positive Organizational Cultures in Reducing Workplace Incivility 5.NURSING,32(1), 4. doi: a1f74b4696b0a03f61b1fb55ed5e54b8/1 McCann, J. (2015). 17W Servant Leadership in Healthcare Organizations.Management Innovations for Healthcare Organizations: Adopt, Abandon or Adapt. Morton, P. G., Fontaine, D., Hudak, C. M., Gallo, B. M. (2017).Critical care nursing: a holistic approach(p. 1056). Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Nieswiadomy, R. M., Bailey, C. (2017).Foundations of nursing research. Pearson. doi: 9780134167213 Phillips, J. M., Stalter, A. M., Dolansky, M. A., Lopez, G. M. (2016). Fostering future leadership in quality and safety in health care through systems thinking.Journal of Professional Nursing,32(1), 15-24. doi: S8755-7223(15)00076-9 Spears, L. C., Lawrence, M. (Eds.). (2016).Practicing servant-leadership: Succeeding through trust, bravery, and forgiveness. John Wiley Sons. doi: oclc/55960763 Wong, C. A. (2015). Connecting nursing leadership and patient outcomes: state of the science.Journal of nursing management,23(3), 275-278. doi: / 10.1111/jonm.12307

Monday, December 2, 2019

Tim Wintons collection of short stories Essay Example For Students

Tim Wintons collection of short stories Essay Tim Wintons collection of short stories, Minimum of Two, endorses the importance of not only enduring but coming out on top. Through the often inspiring tales of Rachel, Queenie and the unnamed girl in The Water was Dark and it went Forever Down, the reader becomes aware of the necessity of persisting to succeed. Nevertheless, Winton presents the characters who dont survive, who dont win and in many ways fail with sympathy and understanding. The weaker male characters such as Jerra and Neil Madigan are examples of people who fall short of their expectations and do not endure life with the attitude of You need to just go, that was it; survive, win. We will write a custom essay on Tim Wintons collection of short stories specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now In the story The Water was Dark and it went Forever Down, the main character, who is identified as a fourteen year old girl, has lost her father and has a difficult relationship with her alcoholic, reclusive mother. The winning is all mentality is shown through the young girls belief in the web of life The sick and the weak died and the young and the strong lived and thrived. The girl is a courageous figure who forms her own principles and lives by them. She is independent and not reliant on anyone else. Her strength is distinguished through her decision that she must leave her mother in order to survive. The story ends with the girl swimming through the channel. The ambiguity of the ending undermines the simplicity of the girls sense that being young and strong and perfect is all that matters in life. Rachel Nilsams character in The Strong One also endorses the idea of surviving and winning. From Forest Winter we are told that having a baby had muted her. In this story she decides to take charge and to study social work at university. Rachel later loses weight and starts to take charge of her life again She had survived something to become Rachel again. No; she knew she was more. Rachel is simply not satisfied with living in a sagging, rented van but instead she wants more. Shes had enough of this kind of living and accuses Jerra of holding her back by his nostalgic nature. For Rachel, winning means asserting ones own desires. She doesnt want to be dependent on Jerra so she takes the initiative of going to university to study. Rachels determination is a perfect example of surviving and winning In her ocean of new feeling she knew she had to be the strong one. The family is just surviving at this point but she wants more for them, she wants the best and she wants to come out on top. Queenie Cookson is another character who shows her inner strength and overcomes hurdles, not only live to tell the tale but to win. The story Laps starts with her beginning to swim again, after seven years, to shrug of defeat. We are told that she had come from her home town a loser, an outcast and that she had left behind a grave and a crusade and a well of bitterness. Queenie and her husband Cleve had left Angelus, the town she grew up in, after their protests about the whaling had led to them being screwed. Queenie feels that the years they have had together have healed old scars and decides she is ready to return. This is a sign of her determination and courage. Not all of the characters in Minimum of Two show signs of inner strength and courage. Jerra is a character who isnt surviving and certainly isnt winning. As the male in the family, he should be supporting them but his efforts arent enough to keep them afloat. Jerra is trapped in the past and is tentative about the future Jerra seemed to bear weight form the past as though they were treasures he had to take with him. We are shown another side of Jerra through Wintons sympathetic portrayal of him. The reader sees that although he is not succeeding, he is gutsy, determined and courageous. In Forest Winter, there is a sign of hope as Jerra realizes that life must go on and he must keep persisting He sharpened the teeth of the chainsaw and prepared to go out into the day. .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73 , .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73 .postImageUrl , .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73 , .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73:hover , .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73:visited , .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73:active { border:0!important; } .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73:active , .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73 .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua71e9886fb3e4c7ad2617c201fb5fa73:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale: A Study of Rebellion EssayCertainly Tim Wintons most admirable characters are those who just go, those who have energy and a love of life; the nameless girl in The Water Was Dark and it Went Forever Down, Queenie Cookson and Rachel Nilsam. They have the potential to achieve their aims. However, a drifter and dreamer such as Jerra and the manic Madigan, who can only win by enacting brutal revenge, are doomed to failure.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Digital Music Increasing Trend

Digital Music Increasing Trend It needs to be said that most of the stores that were opened by music labels have struggled and had to be closed. One of the main reasons for their failure to attract subscribers is the lack of diversity in their music catalogues. They only offered a small range of full-length albums by the artists that have signed to their label, and it have led to numerous problems. It is imperative to understand that the industry has changed dramatically over the last few years.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Digital Music Increasing Trend specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More People in the modern society want to have the access to everything at once, and those stores were not able to provide it. Individuals that wish to buy music from different artists would have to be subscribed to multiple services at once, and it seemed unreasonable. Apple was able to utilize the strength of its brand to create a store that would be extremely succ essful. The stores that were established by labels, on the other hand, did not have the necessary piracy protection technologies or a trendy product such as an IPod that would help them to attract customers (Sadeghi 2012). Also, labels were not ready for such drastic changes because they have focused mostly on CDs, and other music formats were viewed as a significant threat. It was too late to open such stores at that time. Nowadays, they cannot offer the music only in one place because it will significantly damage the sales of the artists. A dramatic shift towards digital music should have been noticed by record labels, and it would help them to address this problem. They could have cooperated and created a platform with all the available resources that would allow them to dominate the market. A single store similar to Itunes or Amazon Music would have most likely become extremely successful. However, it would not be an easy task because of all the copyright issues that could occur , and it would be extremely hard to change the whole process of distribution. An alternative music format could also be developed, but it is not as easy as it sounds. Also, it can be seen that music albums do not sell as well as they used to be. It would not have been surprising if an artist sold more than one million copies over a period of just one week few years ago. Nowadays, the situation is entirely different. Also, it is highly likely that the sales will continue to decline with increasing popularity of streaming services (Tschmuck 2012). It can be seen that Spotify and Apple Music currently hold leading positions (Burgess 2014). Nowadays, it is not an easy task to get into this business. Tidal is one of the best examples because the service currently struggles to retain subscribers. It offers unique content, and the audio quality is significantly better. However, some of the issues that were present during the launch were viewed as a significant problem by most customers. Al so, it does not have such a huge brand and library of music.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, it is extremely necessary to keep track of trends in the industry to make sure that the company can get an advantage over competitors. New technologies are always developing, and this fact should not be disregarded. Music labels could have addressed current problems if they were able to predict the popularity of digital music. Reference List Burgess, R 2014, The history of music production, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Sadeghi, S 2012, Defensive strategy Apple’s overlooked key to success, Epubli, Berlin, GE. Tschmuck, P 2012, Creativity and innovation in the music industry, Springer Science Business Media, New York, NY.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Interdisciplinary Studies What Is It Should You Get a Degree

Interdisciplinary Studies What Is It Should You Get a Degree SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Colleges have a wealth of degrees to choose from that can lead you to all different kinds of career paths. But if you’re looking for something more specialized, something that can combine your love for multiple disciplines into one complete package, interdisciplinary studies might be right for you. If you have questions like what is interdisciplinary studies, what kinds of students will do best in these programs, and how can interdisciplinary studies lead to a great career, read on! What Is Interdisciplinary Studies? Interdisciplinary studies is unique among degree programs. Most traditional programs are focused on a specific field of study, such as mathematics, literature, or computer science. Interdisciplinary studies can include all of the above and more- it depends on what you hope to get out of these programs. The most basic interdisciplinary studies definition is that these programs allow students to choose their concentrations. You can effectively create your own major by choosing two areas of interest and combining them into one degree program that you’ll specialize in. For example, say you love psychology and art. You might combine an art program with a psychology program to create your own art therapy degree. Interdisciplinary studies are distinct from integrative studies, which have one primary focus with others supporting it. For example, if you wanted to study psychology and art in an integrative fashion, you might study how art feeds into psychology but not the other way around. Integrative study doesn’t treat your disparate fields as equal; you have one key discipline, and other programs inform that discipline. Why Choose an Interdisciplinary Studies Major? Interdisciplinary studies is great for students who have specific interests that won’t necessarily be met through a traditional degree. For example, maybe you have a deep interest in linguistics and biology and the ways that the two intersect. You might take linguistics courses and biology courses to get your degree, but the two may not typically cross over in traditional degree programs. If you study those fields as part of an interdisciplinary program, you’ll be designing your major specifically to understand the relationships between the two fields. If you have a specific field you’d like to work in the future, one that requires specialized knowledge, a degree in interdisciplinary studies may be a good approach. If you want to work as a biologist but specifically with the human body has evolved to suit speech, you can design your major to suit those interests. Even better, an interdisciplinary studies program means you’re personally choosing things that are interesting to you. In a traditional degree program, you might end up having to take animal biology or microbiology, neither of which have that much in common with linguistics. In an interdisciplinary program, your classes are more likely to line up directly with the things you want to study because you’re going to be working with advisers to create the ideal major. What Kinds of Students Succeed in Interdisciplinary Studies? Because interdisciplinary studies are a special field, it takes certain kinds of students to succeed. Students who are more likely to succeed in the field include students who are: Creative If you’re interested in interdisciplinary studies, you’re probably at least a little creative. You don’t want to follow the existing paths; you want to create one that’s new and unique to you. That trait will serve you well as you’re connecting different fields and planning out your course schedules, because part of an interdisciplinary studies program is forging new connections between disciplines. Motivated Because interdisciplinary studies doesn’t have a clear path the way many majors do, you’ll need to be a particularly motivated student to make it work for you. You’ll be designing your own course schedule and program with your advisers, which means more work than usual for you as a student. You need to keep your motivation high if you want to succeed as an interdisciplinary studies major. Collaborative You might be the only student at your school with your specific combination of fields in interdisciplinary studies, but that doesn’t mean you won’t be collaborating with others. Forming connections with people with similar interests is a great way to improve your own experience, particularly since you’re going to be forging your own path. You’ll also be working heavily with professors and advisers to create your academic pathway. So though you might be the only person doing exactly your program, it’s still important to work collaboratively with others! Critical Thinkers Many disciplines overlap in college, but for interdisciplinary studies, that overlap is something you’ll largely be figuring out for yourself. Critical thinking is a valuable skill for interdisciplinary studies students for that reason. You’ll be considering all of your courses in conversation with one another, even if the connections aren’t clearly laid out for you. If your program requires a thesis or capstone project, you’ll likely be covering all of the ways your courses and fields intersect. Being able to think critically about those courses will be invaluable to you as you progress through your program. Disciplined Motivation and hard work will get you far, but a sense of discipline will get you even further. Interdisciplinary studies requires that you adhere to a different set of standards than traditional degrees. That means you’ll be guiding yourself, a lot of the time- though you’ll likely work out a plan with your advisers and instructors, you’ll be the one in charge of properly executing it. People who are good at setting goals, hitting deadlines, and planning will have an easier time Pros and Cons of Interdisciplinary Studies There are a lot of considerations to be made in deciding on an interdisciplinary studies program. These programs have lots of unique benefits over other majors, but also some potential drawbacks. Pros: Learning multiple disciplines Understanding how fields overlap Opportunities for new research and development Passion about whatever you’re studying because you design it Cons: Professors may not understand your program Professors may not understand your unique needs as an interdisciplinary studies student Difficult to transition between subjects because work may not necessarily be connected It’s a specialized degree, so some jobs may not know what to make of it May be difficult to get into grad school Jobs may not understand what your degree is What Schools Offer Interdisciplinary Studies Programs? Though the major is an unusual approach, many great schools offer interdisciplinary studies as an option for their students. Some of those schools include: Boise State University Bowling Green State University Brown University College of William and Mary Creighton University Duke University George Washington University Lehigh University Lipscomb University New York University Purdue University Portland State University Stephen F Austin State University SUNY at Fredonia University of California - Berkeley University of California - Los Angeles University of Connecticut University of Denver University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign University of Virginia Valparaiso University What Are Interdisciplinary Programs Like? Many schools throughout the US offer interdisciplinary studies programs. Not every college has an interdisciplinary studies program, and even if they do, it might not be particularly well-supported. The programs covered below all have plenty of information about their interdisciplinary studies programs, including how to apply, what the expectations are, and information on past successes of the department. UC Berkeley At UC Berkeley, interdisciplinary studies is considered part of the bachelor of arts program. You’ll graduate your program, no matter what fields you combine, with a BA. Berkeley also requires a minimum of three fields in your interdisciplinary studies program. The program should be designed to answer a specific research question, but the question can be approached in a multitude of ways, including regional, comparative, and historical approaches. Though interdisciplinary studies allows students to design their own major, Berkeley has a structure in place to ensure that the education students receive is well-rounded and comprehensive. You’ll be choosing from a list of acceptable courses to take to satisfy prerequisites, including introductory courses, world region courses, and methodology courses, with each requirement having an assortment of disciplines to choose from. Tufts Tufts makes it clear that interdisciplinary studies is not just a method of creating a unique major- it’s a dedicated field of study that should be taken seriously. According to their website, â€Å"it is a serious undertaking for the student who is committed to blending disciplines in a way that is demonstrably relevant to an identifiable area of intellectual inquiry.† Tufts has the requirements to match their feelings about interdisciplinary studies being a serious undertaking. Getting your degree requires a thesis and thesis defense in front of an advisory committee, representing the culmination of your work and research. Students create their own advisory committee with three instructors from different disciplines, one of which must be a tenured member of the Arts and Sciences faculty. With their advisory committee, students of interdisciplinary studies will develop their major. Major proposals must include a title, a description of why it needs to be interdisciplinary, what problems will be addressed through the program, and what methodology will be used to address them, as well as letters of support, a bibliography, and list of courses they plan to take. That proposal must be approved by the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies Faculty Committee before you can begin your program. University of Florida University of Florida has some interdisciplinary programs already in place, including biological illustration, sustainability studies, and Middle Eastern languages and culture. For students who wish to design their own major, they must apply separately to the IDS program through the Dean’s office. They must also find at least two tenured advisers to help them design their program. As in the Tufts program, students will be required to complete a thesis to graduate. Because interdisciplinary studies can be customized for each student who pursues it, programs can vary pretty widely between colleges. Here’s a look at three of the programs from some top schools: What Should You Look for in an Interdisciplinary Studies Program? Programs can vary from college to college, but there are a few things to look for if you’re interested in pursuing an interdisciplinary studies degree: A Track Record A college doesn’t need to have your specific interests clearly outlined, but having a framework for interdisciplinary studies makes it easier for you to get a good, well-supported education. Professor Support A traditional degree program has a pathway for success as well as advisers and professors who are well-trained in helping students make it through. That isn’t necessarily true of interdisciplinary studies, which means you have to be extra diligent about evaluating how well you’ll work with your professors. Unfortunately, since professors may not know what exactly your program is, it may be hard for them to understand exactly how one piece fits into another. Unlike traditional degree programs, there’s no real â€Å"stepping stone† approach- your courses may be in radically different fields with no attempt to bridge them. That’s why it’s so important to connect with your professors and your advisers. You need to be sure that you’re all on the same page as far as what you need to get out of each class, even if you are doing the bulk of the bridging yourself. When you are clear about your intentions and goals, it’s easier for your professors to help you meet them! What Kinds of Interdisciplinary Studies Jobs Exist? One of the benefits of a traditional degree program is that future careers will probably know what they mean, even if they’re highly specialized. Interdisciplinary studies degrees are a bit different- while a future job might recognize â€Å"communications† and â€Å"art history,† they might not understand exactly what it means to have an interdisciplinary degree covering both. But that doesn’t mean that you can’t get interdisciplinary studies jobs- only that clarity and dedicated study are the best way to ensure your degree will help you down the line. Here’s a few jobs that benefit from the interdisciplinary approach: Job Degree Required Average Salary Job Description Best For People Who... Teacher Bachelor’s (minimum) $60,477 Teaching children or adults in a specific subject Understand education principles, have a firm grasp on one or more specific subjects, and enjoy working with others Accountant None, but a bachelor’s or higher is greatly preferred $77,920 Analyzes financial information to prepare reports for businesses Work well with numbers, have an eye for detail, and who enjoy analysis Counselors Bachelor’s degree minimum, but a master’s degree is preferred $42,840 Offers advice and guidance to people in a variety of contexts Have great listening skills, are able to remain objective, excel at communicating Journalist None required, but bachelor’s degree greatly preferred $40,077 Writes and researches a variety of topics to create news articles, videos, or other reports Are curious, have writing skills, enjoy research Archaeologist Bachelor’s degree $59,040 Participates in digs and excavations to learn more about history Have an eye for detail, are inquisitive, have flexibility in where they live and for how long Key Tips Taking on an interdisciplinary studies program can be a lot of work. You’ll be looking out for yourself more than you would in a traditional degree program, but the increased freedom and flexibility are worth it for many students. To be sure you’re getting the most out of your program, keep these things in mind: Do Your Research Schools that already have procedures in place for interdisciplinary studies students are likely to better support you. Know ahead of time if these frameworks for success exist, and if not, develop a plan for how you’ll approach your program. Seek out other interdisciplinary studies students and alumni to learn more about their experiences. Did professors support them? How about the school administration? Do they have recommendations about how to make the most of the program? Spending some time learning more about interdisciplinary studies at your school is a great way to ensure that you get the biggest benefit from the program. Don’t be afraid to ask lots of questions- it’s a skill you’ll need for the field! Pick a Focus and Stick With It Interdisciplinary studies is great for students who have a multitude of interests. But that multitude of interests can also be a problem if you struggle to stick with one project for an extended period of time. When you plan out your program with your advisers, be sure it’s a plan you can stick with throughout your time in college- changing your degree is difficult even for traditional programs, but the lost credit hours can be especially hard for interdisciplinary degree students. What’s Next? Looking for other unique ways of combining your interests in college? Consider a dual degree or double major, two other degree programs that let you explore multiple subjects. Curious how long it'll take to complete your interdisciplinary studies program? If you're doing a bachelor's degree, this article about how many years it takes to complete a bachelor's program can help! Journalism is a great field for interdisciplinary studies students. Want to know what schools have the strongest journalism programs? Check out this list!

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Votes for Women Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Votes for Women - Essay Example He was in a very powerful position, as there was no Liberal MP who could even try to oppose him. It is well known that Asquith was totally against the campaign for women's vote right. Partly this was so because of the way he considered the voting: he did not think there was need for each individual to need to have a vote, he considered that such representation was more an issue of representing a class or community. That is why one man could represent the ideas of all of his family. Moreover, there were lots of serious problems facing the Parliament within 1900 - 1914, and Asquith was sure that "women's rights to vote" was a minor issue. In addition he paid no attention to demonstrations while he was sure that they did not reflect people's thinking. There was another aspect. If the law giving women the vote was ever going to be passed, it would have to happen in the Parliament. That means that such parties as the Liberals, the Conservatives and the Labour Party would have a part to play. It is false to think that all male politicians were opposed to female suffrage. In fact the Labour Party supported it, and leading Labour figures were deeply involved in the case. A substantial part of the Liberal Party supported it as well, together with many leading Liberals, including Churchill, Sir Edward Grey, and Lloyd George. Nevertheless there was much opposition to it among the Conservatives, as was vividly depicted in conservative Lord Curzon's speech in 1912. In society those who were against the female suffrage used a wide range of arguments, in 1900 many of the opponents to the movement simply considered that it was self evident that women were not intended to vote. To put it differently women should not have the vote because they simply were females. This was probably the position of most citizens in the country. It is worth mentioning that when people began to rationalise the opposition, occurred women who spoke out against female suffrage. The first group of people who opposed the movement were the people who considered the system to be fine and could not be improved further. Those people objected to giving anyone who was not already eligible to vote the right to do so. They had the vote right themselves, and feared any franchise extension. An elitist system of government and objection of widening the democracy was their major belief. As the debate over enlargement the pool of voters grew, arguments against women's suffrage began to occur. One of them was that all government, in England and in the Empire, rests on physical force, which women do not possess, or do not want to contribute to it because of their constitution. The idea is that women are too physically weak and it is not in their nature to be soldiers. The second aspect of the argument was that women influence would evidently help the introduction of pacifism into society. In relation to the Empire there were two further argument lines. One meant that if women got opportunity to gain power in Britain, a demand for the

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Book Critique Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Book Critique - Essay Example In this story Moraley furnished a scarce view of life between the lower classes in England and the middle colonies of America through the early eighteen century. His adventure as indentured servants from England to the â€Å"American Plantations†, where he served in different jobs, saunter on the country side, and jumbled with black and white bonds people, the worker, craftsman, Indians, and other ordinary people. The special interest in the story is the comments of Moraley on servants, bondservants, and Native American. The story is about the lower class lives in England and American Colonies during the eighteen century. One of the major characters of the story is Willaim Carr who took him from his job and taught him the Trade of Watch making. The main character of his stories is his father, brother and mother as well as his wife who affected his life too much. Sir George is another character of his story. He wrote about Sir George while he was sailing on towards America. He has written about his masters daughter as well. When he met up with the daughter of his master he was removing his rags and given a torn shirt and an old coat, but was assured that the clothes were provisional and that he could anticipate better. This was the first time in the story when Moraley thus a feeling of respect among a master and an indentured servant (Moraley, Klepp, & Smith, 2005, pp. 18-20). After spending her time on the boat they went to Philadelphia where the slaves were to be sold all the slaves were sold except Morely. He went to Philadelphia and wants to spend his life in good manners, he started to search for a job but he failed and sold to a master. During this time period he fell in love and want to settle there but he sold. When he was working for his master he ran away from there but caught. His masters bailed him from jail and free him before his ending time period of serving. After that he engaged with a

Sunday, November 17, 2019

School Bus and Dumb Pigs Essay Example for Free

School Bus and Dumb Pigs Essay Narrator: Megan’s father asked her to feed the pigs on her way to school. He said†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Father: Megan please feed the pigs but don’t open the gate. Pigs are smarter than you think. Don’t open the gate. Megan: right I will not open the gate. Not me no sir no no no no. Narrator: so Megan went to the pig pen. She looked the pigs. The pigs looked at Megan. Megan: these are the dumbest looking pigs I have ever seen. They stand here like lumps on a bump. They wouldn’t do anything if I did open the gate. Narrator: so Megan opened the gate just a little bit. The pigs stood there and looked at Megan. They didn’t do anything. Megan said Megan: these are the dumbest looking pigs I have ever seen. They stand here like lumps on a bump. They wouldn’t do anything even go out the door if the house was on fire. Narrator: so Megan opened the gate a little bit more. The pigs stood there and looked at Megan. They didn’t do anything. Then Megan yelled†¦ Megan: HEY YOU DUMB PIGS! Narrator: the pigs jumped up and ran over Megan, WAP- WAP- WAP-WAP-WAP and out the gate. When Megan got up she couldn’t see the pigs anywhere. She said Megan: UH OH, I am in bad trouble. Maybe pigs are not so dumb after all. Narrator: then she went to tell her father the bad news. When she got to the house Megan heard a noise coming from the kitchen. Then it went, Pig: OINK OINK OINK Megan: that doesn’t sound like my mother. That doesn’t sound like my father. that sounds like pigs. Narrator: she looked in the window. There was her father sitting at the breakfast table. A pig was drinking his coffee. A pig was eating his news paper and a pig peeing on his shoe. Father: Megan you opened the gate. Get these pigs out of here. Narrator: Megan opened the front door a little bit. The pigs stood and looked at Megan. Finally Megan opened the front door all the way and yelled†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Megan: HEY YOU DUMB PIGS. Narrator: the pigs jumped up and ran right over Megan, WAP- WAP-WAP-WAP And out the door. Megan ran outside chassed all the pigs into the pig pen and shut the gate. Then she looked at the pigs a said†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Megan: your are still dumb, like lumps on a bump. Narrator: then she ran off to school. Just as she was about to open the front door of the school she heard a sound. Pigs: OINK OINK OINK. Narrator: she said †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Megan: that doesn’t sound like my teacher. That doesn’t sound like the principal. That sounds like pigs Narrator: Megan looked in the principle’s window. There was a pig drinking principal’s coffee. A pig was eating the principal’s newspaper. And a pig was peeing on the principal’s shoe. The principal yelled†¦. Principal: Megan, get these pigs out of here! Narrator: Megan opened the front door of the school a little bit. The pigs didn’t do anything. She opened the door all the way and yelled†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Megan: HEY YOU DUMB PIGS. Narrator: the pigs jumped up and ran right over Megan, WAP-WAP-WAP-WAP and out the door. Megan went into the school she sat down at the desk and said†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Megan: that’s that I finally got rid of all the pigs. Narrator: then she heard a noise. Pig: OINK OINK OINK Narrator: Megan opened her desk and there a new baby pig. The teacher said†¦ Teacher: Megan get that dumb pig out of here. Megan: Dumb? Who ever said pigs were dumb? Pigs are smart. I am going to keep it for a pet. Narrator: at the end of the day the school bus finally came Megan walked up to the door then heard something say, Pig: OINK OINK OINK Narrator: Megan said Megan: that doesn’t sound like the bus driver that sounds like the pigs. Narrator: she climbed up the stairs and looked in the bus. There was a pig driving the bus, pigs eating the seats and pigs lying in the aisle. A pig shut the door and drove the bus down the road. It drove the bus all the way to Megan’s farm, through the barnyard and right into the pig pen. Megan got out of the bus walked across the barnyard and marched into the kitchen. She said†¦. Megan: the pigs are all back in the pig pen. They came back by themselves. Pigs are smarter than you think. Narrator: and Megan never let out any more animals out again. At least not any more pigs

Friday, November 15, 2019

During this essay I will be exploring and comparing two of Carol Ann :: English Literature

During this essay I will be exploring and comparing two of Carol Ann Duffy’s poems, Education for Leisure and Stealing Comparison between two of Duffy’s poems. During this essay I will be exploring and comparing two of Carol Ann Duffy’s poems, â€Å"Education for Leisure† and â€Å"Stealing†. In both of these dramatic monologues Duffy clearly portrays a certain persona, the character in â€Å"Education for Leisure† is shown as a young adult, that, because he has been ignored, is trying to find power by killing living things. Similarly the character in the poem â€Å"Stealing† is ignored and friendless and so resorts to stealing just for the thrill of it, often stealing things that aren’t useful to him. The character in the poem Education for Leisure is very egocentric, â€Å"I breathe out talent on the glass to write my name† this shows that he really believes that even the air he exhales is important enough to be classed as talent and he writes his name on it as if it was an autograph. He also says â€Å"I could be anything at all, with half a chance.† This shows that he isn’t given the chance to be anything that he wants to be and that he is quite ignored by others. This helps explain why he goes on his killing spree, its probably because people don’t acknowledge him that he wants that kind of power of someone, or something so he isn’t ignored anymore. The character in the poem â€Å"Stealing† is very lonely, when talking about a snowman he once stole he says â€Å"I wanted him, a mate with a mind as cold as the slice of ice within my brain.† This shows that what he wants is a friend that is just like him, someone he can relate to, because no one else could understand. He also says â€Å"Sometimes I steal things I don’t need† He does this because he got a thrill out of doing it the first time and it gives him a sense of power of who he is stealing from. The quote â€Å"I sigh like this - Aah† shows the satisfaction he gets when he is stealing, and the short sentence â€Å"Mirrors.† show that he likes to see himself, and he sees it as a

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Budweiser Paper

MARKETING 474 FINAL: INTEGRATED MARKETING PLAN INSTRUCTIONS: You will complete an Integrated Marketing Plan with your group for Budweiser. As you may know the ailing beer manufacturer is struggling. You will need to do additional research to uncover the issues that are plaguing the brand. The goal of your plan is to drive business. BUDWEISER OVERVIEW: In January, Coors Light surpassed Budweiser to become the #2 selling beer in the U. S. It was a major blow for Budweiser, a brand that has been in decline for the last three decades.Certainly the changing tastes of the American consumers have impacted sales of Anheuser Busch's flagship brand, but marketing decisions have also played a big role in the fall of the iconic brand. Budweiser has tried to be everything from fratty to refined to sporty to hipster. Anheuser-Busch has always put a major focus on marketing. This is the company, after all, that spent $246. 2 million solely on Super-Bowl commercials from 2002 to 2011. Edward McClelland of Salon  says that from its inception, Budweiser was a â€Å"triumph of marketing over quality. The quality was questionable: Adolphus Busch, the company's founder, called his beer â€Å"dot-schlop† and preferred to drink wine and St. Louis drinkers were not fans of the drink either, but the Busch family still bought the licenses and paid rent for bar owners in exchange for serving the product. Budweiser had its glory days in the 1950s when Anheuser-Busch helped strengthen its national brand by sponsoring shows featuring Jackie Gleason, Milton Berle, and Frank Sinatra. It also promoted its beer by sponsoring sporting events and branding stadiums. By the 1980s, Budweiser was synonymous with American culture. â€Å"Budweiser’s kind of a mainstay.It’s a good old American tradition, like going to a baseball game or a college football game,†Ã‚  says Kevin Eichelberger, webmaster of BeerTees. com. But something has happened in the past three decades and, while it still has clout overseas, the Budweiser brand is tired here at home. Undoubtedly, owners A-B InBev will try to save it with marketing, as they have always done. But will that be enough to return Budweiser to the throne and its former glory? Source: businessinsider. comPAPER OUTLINE: Integrated Marketing Campaign Deliverab les: You should outline the following before you begin developing your IMC (Word Times New Roman 12 Font and 1. inch margins):OVERVIEW (2-3 Pages)1. Budweiser Problem2. Company Culture, Values, Mission3. Communication Objective: (e. g. Inform, Persuade, Call to action)4. Brand Positioning and Personality5. Intended Target Audience/Insights CAMPAIGN (At least 3-5 Pages) â€Å"BIG IDEA†: or compelling theme. (e. g. What happens in Vegas stays in Vegas)MESSAGE: Relevant copy and actionable message for your target consumer which includes (e. g. rational or emotional appeal or selling proposition)CHANNELS (examples): a. Print Campaign: Headline, Artwork/Visual and Copy b. Events with Sponsors c.Direct Communication: Web-site, Social Media d. Public RelationsCREATIVE: Headline to capture the target’s attention and photos that capture the essence of the campaignGRADING CRITERIA: 200 Points: Written Strategy-Did you have a compelling strategy for your IMC? Was your strategy al igned to the problems and issues? 100 Points: 5 minute Oral Presentation-How Creative was your IMC presentation? Did you use innovative ways to drive sales that would resonate with the target consumer?Note: Your Oral Presentation should be 4-5 Slides developed from the CAMPAIGN part of the written strategy.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Beijing EAPS Consulting, Inc.

The case study, â€Å"Beijing EAPS Consulting, Inc. † in the Custom Book, (2011), examines the project management structure of the Beijing EAPS Consulting (BEC) company. This case study also addresses about project plan itself and how the co-workers are struggling with this communication between both mangers. This project plan has demonstrated many strengths and weakness. The one thing that the project plan needs put into action is safeguards to insure that the project is completed on time. BEC has taken on the matrix organizational structure.This type of structure combines functional and divisional organization structure styles. There are advantages and disadvantages in utilizing this type of organizational structure. Advantages include resource utilization, specialization, cross functional areas, communication and flexibility. Resource utilization allows for the project departmental managers to focus on their strengths. Also, it allows for the managers to all the workers to specialize in an area of important for that project. In turn, it uses people across the company who specialize in a field that relates to the project at hand.This matrix structure permits cross departmental communication and flexibility to work on different projects across the company structure. ( Guzman, 2012) However, with advantages come disadvantage with this type of matrix organizational structure. This structure increases complexity within the organization by leading to confusion among both workers and managers. The managers may not know what a certain employee has on their plate. In reverse, the employee will obtain an overload of work because they are receiving work from two different types of managers.Another disadvantage is an increase in overhead cost for the company due to the need for double management. This double management can lead to confusion between managers as to who has the higher priority of work creating a power struggle. (Johnson, 2012) The case study,  "Beijing EAPS Consulting, Inc. † in the Custom Book, (2011), reveals many advantages and disadvantages to this matrix organizational structure. For instance, the project manager, Ms. Song, and the departmental manager, Mr. Yang, are having a problem deciding who makes the final decisions on work to be completed because they are the same level in the management structure.Ms. Song feels like she does not have the authority to give direction to Mr. Yang’s employees. She is also wary about asking Mr. Yang to give his employees work from her because of his temperament. The loud and abrasive attitude of Mr. Yang represents the rational personality type. A rational trait is more forceful and can get angry quickly. (Lewis, 2003) Mr. Yang knows he has this type of personality; however, he does not do anything to curve this problem when he notices that Ms. Song is not communicating with him.Also, the employees do not know which manager to listen to or how to prioritize their work at hand. This causes more conflict between the employees, the project manager and departmental managers. In addition, these employees are not sure if the project manager or the department manager is their direct supervisor. This in turn causes conflict between both managers. There are some strengths and weaknesses that have been made clear about the project plan in the case study, â€Å"Beijing EAPS Consulting, Inc. † in the Custom Book, (2011).These weaknesses include an overload of individual and team projects. The employees need to work extra hours to keep up with tight deadlines. They are also working across department lines meaning they have to meet the demands of more than one manager at a time. When urgent matters arise they are required to add the new work to meet a new deadline on top of the current work load which now causes more stress on the employees and managers. On the other side, some of the strengths include being more efficient and market-oriented. These st rengths will help the company grow in size and profit.Also, being a matrix structure allows for multiple cross functional teams to work together. This helps the company work in a team environment with collaboration across all departmental boarders. Kloppenborg, Shriberg, and Venkattaman in Project Leadership (2003) discuss many factors about working in a team environment and the type of team behavior that is needed to help balance the expansion and management problems facing the Beijing EAPS Consulting company. To begin, the team environment needs a leader that is committed to the company and to them.This leader also needs knowledge of the project at hand, as well as the skills to help facilitated the project completion. Also, within this team environment it is a good idea to bring in the team members to participate in the 5 classical team development steps. These include forming, storming, norming, preforming and adjourning. By bringing in the entire team, a sense of community and rapport is built with the rest of the team. This helps to create a better cohesive and happier team environment. Team behavior is very important for a growing company like BEC. They need to make sure that heir employees have the correct company vision and attitude to expand. One of the big factors in getting a team together is to make sure that they socialize. They need to get to know each other and to understand their team members backgrounds both personally and professionally, along with their skills and behaviors they emanate. This will help lead to respect within the team environment. One of the major factors BEC is missing within its team environment is ground rules and codes of conduct. This helps the team share in understanding and expectations of the team as a whole.This implementation would help promote the correct behavior for any given situation within the team environment. These rules would also let them know who is in charge and who they report to for a specific project or goal they have been assigned. (Exforsys, 2010). Once you have a team in place, the next important goal is to make sure that your projects are completed on time. There are many ways safeguards and project planning can be done to mitigate the risk of being late for a project completion. The first thing that would need to be done is a Work Base Structure (WBS).This would insure that all aspects of the project have been planned out with timelines and schedules of smaller milestones. The WBS would take into account any risk management planning that would need to occur along with any communication planning. Another great safeguard is to build on some time to the end of the project deadline for any unforeseen events but have a set firm deadline. This firm deadline will give the project team a sense of responsibility to get the project done within that timeframe. This is a commitment from, not just the company, but the sponsors, team and project managers.In saying that, the project mana ger would need to track the progress of the work completed and the schedule to make sure that everything is running smoothly. Once milestones are met upper management would be notified as to the progress of the project. (Phillips, 2004) Every company needs a designed structure for communication between employees and management. The employees need to understand the reporting structure up though management and whether they are reporting to a project manager or a department manager However, it is not just the employees that need this definition of reporting structure but the managers need it as well.When the project manager is developing the team they need to create a community type of feeling within the team environment. This will help to insure that there is communication and good rapport with the team. Finally, making sure that a team stays on track and meets deadlines is a major under taking for the project manager. They need to build a WBS and take into account safeguards to insur e that deadlines are met.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Public Restrooms in Franceâ€Les Toilettes Publiques

Public Restrooms in France- Les Toilettes Publiques When you travel to France, one thing is certain- youll have to use the restroom. Politely asking where the toilets are is a delicate thing in French. Now that youve mastered the toilet-related vocabulary and the strange double flush tank, you are ready for your next challenge: using (and surviving) Les toilettes publiques! In a small (or huge) town, using les W.C  of a restaurant or a cafà © should not be a problem. Just ask oà ¹ sont les toilettes sil vous plaà ®t, and you should be fine. But unless you are a patron, in many very touristy areas, youll have to use the public restrooms. It may be worth buying un cafà ©, even if you dont drink it, so you can use the cafà ©s bathroom. Some very old fashioned public restrooms or very old fashioned restaurants will have what we used to call une dame pipi (literally a pee lady ... a more PC term is agent dentretien- maintenance officer). This person cleans and takes care of the place. Its customary to leave them a tip- 50 centimes or one Euro. Les Urinoirs (urinals) are still very common and not so discreet in France. Its not uncommon in a public restroom to have a urinal section facing the closed toilets so that when you enter/exit the restroom you will pass in front of urinating men ...  how nice. More modern public restrooms will be some sort of a cabin (called une sanisette) which opens up when you insert a coin (they are free in Paris since 2006 ... and more or less  dirty ... and always lacking toilet paper, so plan on bringing tissues). The instructions are pretty clear, and there are usually drawings. However, a  Skype student of mine had an interesting story with one of these. He had to pay one Euro to get in. So, after he did his business, as he left and the door opened, he let his spouse in. And she got ... a free shower! Some of these cabins get fully rinsed after each use, from top to bottom. So ... pay the extra one Euro. And yes, it is still very true, many public restrooms (rarely in cities, but frequently highway restrooms) are what we call des toilettes la turque- no seat but a hole. I hate these, as Im pretty sure every other woman does. Basically, there is a hole, and two rectangles to place your feet, supposedly out of the pee route. Face the door if you want to limit the damage. No, French women dont have a secret about using these. We are all created equal when it comes to using these awful devices.   Last thing ... the French are not really shy when it comes to peeing al fresco- outside! If you drive around France, you may sometimes see a car stopped on the side of the road, with a guy facing the fields and relieving himself. Well, at least he is not facing the road. Nothing shocking here for the French, its only human nature!

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

20 Cognitive Biases That Screw Up Your Decisions

20 Cognitive Biases That Screw Up Your Decisions A cognitive bias, according to Wikipedia  refers to a systematic  deviation from rationality whereby our judgement of other people and situations are drawn from an illogical line of thinking. What this means is that we often make our decisions based on emotions rather than logic. And this can lead us to make very bad decisions that could be detrimental to our quality of life. Okay, so we make bad decisions. What can we do to fix that?   We can start by learning what the more common biases are. If we learn what they are, we will be able to identify when they are in the process of happening  . That being said, here is a list of 20 cognitive biases that screw up our decisions.  Source: [BusinessInsider]

Sunday, November 3, 2019

IRAC Brief and Torts Scenario Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

IRAC Brief and Torts Scenario - Coursework Example ly based on the flooding associated with Sandy.† (Butts, 2015) The rule used in deciding the case was from the Executive Order 165 and Order 163 while the insurance policy acted as the agreement document. The plaintiff’s insurance cover excluded the case of losses or damages that were caused indirectly or directly by the floods. It covered only the losses or damages that were caused â€Å"by order of a civil authority as a direct result of a Covered Cause of Loss to property in the immediate area.† (Butts, 2015) Bamundo, Zwal and Schermerhorn main cause of loss was Sandy storm which is a flooding condition. The evacuation was, therefore, not a cause of loss to the plaintiff’s but a precautionary act to avoid further loss. In case, the civil authority acted out of no natural forces to evacuate the plaintiff’s then the case’s verdict would have favored them. The major cause of the loss to the plaintiff is the floods conditions, therefore, the insurance company are not suppose to compensate the plaintiff. The civil authority evacuation order was a precautionary act that whose cause was the flooding condition. The judge’s ruling is right and the facts and arguments that are provided are reasonable and make sense. Personal property is a property that is movable contrary to real estate or real property. In common law it can be referred to as personalty or chattels while in civil law it is called movables or immovable property. It can be classified in the form of tangibles and intangibles, whereby, the tangibles include clothing, furniture and jewelry while intangibles include negotiable instruments and securities (Burke & Snoe, 2008). Real property is a kind of property attached to land directly and includes the land itself (Burke & Snoe, 2008). It includes buildings, other structures, interests and rights. The real property can be categorized as either residential or rental. Intellectual property is a broad group of intangibles that have a company as

Friday, November 1, 2019

The summary of the article for business within two weeks' newspaper

The summary of the for business within two weeks' newspaper - Article Example Without the knowledge of the customers, however, the money was transferred to the accounts of the owners and managers of the online gambling site, who were themselves were seasoned and prominent poker players. On behalf of the players who were cheated out of their money, federal prosecutors filed a civil complaint against the company, for an amount that could well reach $390 million, the amount allegedly acquired by the unscrupulous online game from its unsuspecting clientele. According to the federal prosecutors handling the case, the Full Tilt website was actually not a legitimate poker firm, but an elaborate Ponzi scheme the intention of which was actually to defraud those people whom the managers can entice to sign up with them. The fraud was revealed when the prosecutors had several poker sites shut down in the course of investigating two other poker web sites, which were based abroad. Because the site of Full Tilt Poker was also shut down, customers began asking for their money back, money which was supposed to have been held by Full Tile for safekeeping. When the reimbursements did not come, federal authorities were alerted, and the illegal scheme was discovered. Full Tilt is an online gambling business that exists de facto but the exact legal personality of which has not been determined. It has its headquarters in Ireland. Among those said to have profited from Full Tilt’s operations are Howard Lederer who is said to have received $42 million, and Christ Ferguson who got $25 million and has receivables of $60 million more. Both are considered luminaries in the world of poker. Former patrons of the website said that in the past, they were paid in a timely fashion and there appeared to be no problems if they withdrew money from their account anytime. When the crisis came and players began withdrawing their money all at the same time, Full Tilt’s reimbursements slowed and then stopped altogether, indicating the possibility of embezzlement of money which should have been held in individual accounts for the players. Reaction It is particularly ironic that people who go out of their way to gamble are themselves cheated out of their gambling money – a vice for a vice. During these hard times, gambling should be viewed as particularly wasteful and inconsiderate of others’ plight; in a sense, there is some poetic justice in being cheated out of money they were about to lose anyway. It is determined that the chances of consistently winning in a game of chance are skewed against the customer, and in favour of the gambling operator (Ethier 338). Other than this, there are serious problems about litigation and recovery. Full Tilt being a foreign de facto entity, and the embezzlement being committed in the U.S., there will be difficulty bringing the illicit corporation under the jurisprudence of the tribunal in the U.S. It may also prove difficult to trace the money trail to see who benefitted from the stolen funds a s the internet by its nature protects anonymity. There will therefore be serious problems between the actual embezzlers, and those whose names were merely used to enhance the site’s appeal. The very act of gambling online is against U.S. law, so there may naturally be no international agreements that may have been entered to provide basis of claim between two countries. It

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Db3 managing high performance Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Db3 managing high performance - Research Paper Example Managers must correct any mistakes made or solve disagreements dutifully to avoid creating disharmony. Japanese remove their shoes whenever they enter a house with a tatami reed mat laid on the wall. Westerners visiting officers or restaurants with tatami should be aware of this custom and remove their shoes before entering these offices. Mc Farlin & Sweeney (2014) explain that Japanese managers allocates more time and concerted efforts to ensure that work groups operate efficiently. Japanese managers encourage equal participation with harmonious working conditions. Japanese managers recognize and award exemplary group performance as opposed to individual performance. This is as opposed to among US companies that emphasize on individual achievement. American corporations discourage extreme group harmony. They argue that extreme group harmony causes groupthink, which may lead to ineffective decision making. Another Japanese social custom pertains the giving or receiving of business cards. The Japanese receive and give business cards in a courteous manner. They receive business cards with both hands and read them before keeping them. Giving cards with one hand is a sign of disrespect. The Japanese approach of allowing a free organizational structure is likely to improve employee satisfaction (Primecz, Romani & Sackmann, 2011). The US companies of fostering both individual and teamwork performance is likely to enhance company performance by setting both individual and team

Monday, October 28, 2019

Research Design in Geography

Research Design in Geography With the ever-growing expansion of global knowledge geographers like many other scientists both human and physical have begin to face an â€Å"information explosion† (Ebdon, 1985). The readily available written information and numerical data today is increasing at an accelerating rate. This has lead to the necessity for summaries of these large data sets showing the concise measurements of their attributes. Human and physical geography can be seen as two different disciplines one been primarily focussed on qualitative data and one quantitative data respectively; both been equally reliant and interested within secondary data sources. The contention as to why this is the case is outlined below. It can be noted that secondary data within the research discipline may be defined as â€Å"data which has not been collected with the specific research question in mind† (Emanuel and Egenvall, 2014). It can be seen as data which has previously been collected by somebody else however is effortlessly available; Secondary data was once a branch of primary data (Vartanian, 2010). It is seen as common source for academic disciplines to use within research projects either been obtained from quantitative or qualitative sources. Secondary data as an aspect of scientific disciplines has come about due to the global widespread transition from paper to digital (Gomez and Jones, 2010). Nowadays datasets can be created, analysed and distributed worldwide digitally. Digital secondary data is often structured within databases and organised as tables which can be analysed. An example of this is weather records available online within the NOAA – National Climatic Data Centre (NCDC) whereby annual to daily summaries are available as structured datasets. This climatic data online provides free accessible archives of global historical weather and climatic data addressing all variables. Compared to many other scientific disciplines geographers use a great deal of secondary data because of the numerous types of data available within geographic research (Montello and Sutton, 2006). Maps as a branch of secondary data support the basis of physical geographer’s research; there involvement in the environmental features, factors and processes which coalesce together to make a place unique. With the earth’s features and landscapes ever-changing in a spatial context maps allow geographer’s to study and monitor landscape change over time (Gabler et al, 2008). Climatologists are interested in weather maps as they show where and how weather elements change daily, over the seasons and yearly. This allows for predictions and management in areas which may be susceptible to high levels of rainfall, such as south West England; whereas Geomorphologists look at the study of the topography within a given area. Using maps physical geographers apply their knowledge they discover from the study of the earth; the observation of phenomena and compilation of data to seek solutions to the global issues to which they are interested in. Geographic Maps are readily av ailable at (Digi-map) ordinance survey map data on Edina Maps; an example of a historic map can be found at Physical geographers and other scientists work to describe and analyse the often complex features of planet earth and its environments by composing representations of the real world; models. A model is a simplified version of a more complex reality that allows for prediction; each model is designed with a specific purpose in mind. This is evident in Pacione (2001) with the idea of the concentric zone model and the multiple nuclei model in order to explain the spatial structure of the urban economy. A map is a branch of model as it shows a representation providing useful information required to meet specific needs. Maps are seen as a pictorial model (Gabler et al, 2008) and are used because they are efficient in conveying a great amount of spatial information that is easily recognisable. Likewise maps not only show spatial information and data but they also show essential information about the map itself which is interesting to geographers; the legend, scale and direction. A more recent approach since the 1990’s is the use of geographic information systems and aerial remote sensing as a branch of mapping. Initially geographers used maps achieved by producing a transparent overlay for each data set at a common scale, aligning overlays so that their co-ordinates corresponded and then drawing a new overlay showing for instance how rock types and soils interrelate (Freeman et al, 1993). However the more data there is to analyse the more complex the map becomes as a piece of secondary data. Therefore large complex data sets require the use of computer software designed to manipulate spatial data. This computer based technology assists the large geographic data derived from numerous digital map layers (composed of thematic maps) enabling geographers to address global problems that require large amounts of spatial data from a variety of sources (Gabler et al, 2008). Figure 1shows the clear procedure in order to use GIS to create secondary data. As Moran (1975) states though it is not just geography using such tool, statistical analysis with maps is of course important in all other sciences such as geology, epidemiology and geophysics. An example of this is the work been done on the small scale geographical distribution of cases of tuberculosis, cancer and leukaemia (Moran, 1975). This is done to see if there is evidence of clustering; which may give light on the causation of such diseases. Within the geographic discipline the common term secondary data refers to the relatively large databases those individual researchers would not be able to produce; for example census data, newspaper archives, satellite imagery or resource inventories. Secondary data is an important aspect in all geographic literature because it can be analysed in order demonstrate a depth of relationship between variables to show an underlying trend. Geographers use secondary data because it provides an alternative to the collection of primary data which in turn often gives the researcher access to more information than would be available (Vartanian, 2010). Figure 2 shows just a sample of large datasets available on Income Inequality as a branch of human geography. Archives are seen as another branch of secondary data whereby the use of existing records that others have collected primarily for non-research purposes such as financial reports, birth and death records, newspaper stories, diaries or letters. These could be seen as more beneficial to human geographers as they are qualitative data. A recent approach and use of secondary data is the use of personal solicited diaries as a qualitative method of research within social geography. In Meth (2003) diaries were used with women from South Africa who recorded their experiences of violence over a one month period. Within the article it shows that solicited diaries can contribute towards a feminist analysis of social processes similarly within human geography diaries can promote participation and engagement by respondents in the research process. This use of secondary data is also present in the recent study into the everyday geographies into the heterosexual love and home by Morrison (2012). Within this study solicited diaries are seen to provide participants with a sense of emotional reflection and they can allow researchers to access this knowledge which may not have been opened if another data collection method was used. However as Morrison (2012) states diaries offer â€Å"momentariness† research and cannot alwa ys be compared to everyday life. Compared to many other scientific disciplines, both human and physical geographers use a great deal of secondary data (Montello Sutton, 2006). Geographers can often be seen to study phenomena at large spatial and temporal scales where it can be seen as too difficult and upscale to collect data oneself. Likewise the idea that secondary data is not intended for ones research often inspires a geographers’ research area. As Montello Sutton (2006) found, much geographic research is that analysts study problems at the examination scale of such available dataset, which is often not the scale at which the phenomena operates. The primary reason for the use of secondary data is its availability; it is evident that there are thousands accessible in a myriad of places (Vartanian, 2010). This availability in such increasing amounts is due to the digitalization of many records. For human geographers the uttermost used source of secondary data is the population census (Flowerdew and Martin, 2013); which is produced in the UK every 10 years by the office of National Statistics (ONS). This in-depth data analysis provides demographic statistics but also details on education, transport, work and housing. Census data is available publicly online at no cost and is available globally; facilitating their use as an exploratory first step within a research project opposed to primary research within the same research area (Gomez and Jones, 2010). This approach is seen as more efficient in respect to time and cost in comparison to primary data collection. However it has become apparent that a large gap exists in the relati ve abilities of the rich and the poor countries to produce and control digital secondary datasets. However Gomez and Jones (2010) have seen the global south trying to narrow the digital divide by governmental projects in-order to create their own data collection. As geographers it is clear that the growing accessibility of digitalised data is related to the growth of geomatic technologies. Emanuelson and Egenvall (2014) address the issue of time and cost; it is apparent that secondary data is cheaper and more readily available than primary data. Due to this the ability to gain large samples of data is seen more apparent likewise the chance to limit selection bias due to been able to sample a large part of the population. Primary data can be affected by specific biases such as recall and non-response. Secondary data is less likely to be affected by these biases due to the data been collected for another research question in mind. Questions should still be considered in secondary data such as how representative is the data, reliability and completeness of data to ensure validity. The data should be validated in the same way (i.e. Identification of non normal observations and internal validity). Reliability and validity are important questions within research as this offers consistency of results under repeatability conditions and offers a â€Å"truth-value of researchâ €  (Montello and Sutton, 2013). The legitimacy of secondary data is carried by the organised order making it well suited for many types of quantitative or statistical analysis. Likewise secondary data is commonly produced by trained professionals who pre-test the questions and verify categories in order to produce standard and comparable information, both across time and space (Gomez, 2010). Most importantly the professional systems of collection assembly, storage and retrieval that constitute secondary data confer legitimacy that is widely recognised and works to empower such data and make it rhetorically convincing. Secondary data can arguably be involved within geography due to the â€Å"Quantitative Revolution†; a term used by Davies (1972) as an aspect of one of the four major turning points within modern geography. This revolution occurred during the 1950’s and 1960’s highlighting a method of change behind geographical research; a launch from geography been a regional finding based research to a spatial science (Davies, 1972). The idea of secondary data been incorporated into the discipline meant that there was a movement from descriptive to scientific. As Davies (1972) states there is a still a divide between human and physical geography as it can be seen that physical has developed this â€Å"quantitative revolution† further causing a general talk of human geography becoming its own independent subject. The revolution itself is the basis for geography using secondary data today due to its creation of dynamism, self-insurance and a reassertion of scientific princ iples (Newby, 1980). This introduction of â€Å"scientific thinking† (Davies, 1972) engaged the geographic discipline into the solution for spatial, social and environmental global problems. By turning an introspective subject into an actively concerned discipline interested in the relationship it has with alternative global topics. Throughout physical geography the growth in analysis has not only been linked to but also related to the change in content and focus of enquiry. An example of this is the growing use of systems and modelling approach in Geomorphology (Chorley, 1962) and the rapid expansion of technology allowing secondary data to be widely available. In human geography the beginning of quantitative techniques and the associated philosophical implications of a positivist approach led to change from 1965-75 (Gregory, 1983); arguably a decade later than physical geography. Urban geography experienced a drastic shift from an urban land use approach to quantitatively based studies of spatial urban and economic structures. This need for statistics within all aspects of geography was made clear by Wilson and Kirkby (1975) nevertheless some British Geographers are overlooking aspects which need real mathematical competence. It has become clear that secondary datasets have become an important role in economic research due to the expansion of availability of datasets. Within human geography and economics international agencies such as the World Bank and the United Nations (UN) since the 1990’s have expanded its data sets, as for years have published income distribution data in its annual world development report. Advancements within these data sets are enabling a greater scale and distribution (Atkinson and Brandolini, 2001). An example of this can be seen by the data sets constructed by Klaus Deininger and Lyn Squire (1996) and the world income inequality database (WIID). Alongside the expansion of research it can be noted that research has changed over time. This is displayed in the Social Service Review (SSR) during 1980 and 2007. In 1980 six main articles or notes used some form of secondary data either administrative or survey data whereas in 2007 it was twenty-two used articles published. Vartanian (2010 argues this is only a snapshot of a trend based on one elite social work journal; However secondary data is becoming increasingly important. Statistical data is an important aspect of geography as it offers credibility to an argument or advice. Moran (1975) claims that statistical geography bears the same relation to geography that econometrics do to economics. Statistics are present in all academic journals and are constantly been generated by governmental organisations in-order to generate spatial trends. Governmental run datasets such as national statistics online, the UK population census and GEsource, all offer data which can be found across most countries and can usually be disaggregated to quite small areas such as administrative and political divisions; which are popular amongst geographers (Flowerdew and Martin, 2013). Moran (1975) discovers that a great deal of statistical geography appears to be more descriptive than explanatory. The most common use of statistics in the UK by human geographers is the population census data. A geographic use of this is using census data to look at migration and morbidity in Bentham, G, (1988). Census data is an official complete collection of data from the population with details as to age, sex and occupation and renewed every 10 years. Bentham, G (1988) looks at the association between the geographical pattern of disease and possible casual factors; looking at the 1981 GB Census data. Self-reported morbidity statistics are used; displaying that the health status of migrants differs noticeably from that of non-migrants. Similarly Mesev, V (1998) uses census data within urban image classification. Mesev looks at a monitored classification strategy containing a group of techniques that allow the connecting of urban land cover from remotely sensed data with urban functional characteristics from the population census data. However statistical data should not bind us solely to secondary data; in addition there are administrative reports, business records, diaries, newspapers and maps. As with any form of methodology disadvantages are there; secondary data can be argued to have a lack of control (Vartanian, 2010). It can be said to have a lack of control over the framing and wording of survey items and that the questions important to your studied may not be included in such data. Likewise subtleties matter a great deal in research and secondary data can be argued to get broader and not answer the research question in the direct research title. Similarly Emanuelson and Egenvall (2014) consider that there is no control over the information what is included in datasets which have already been produced therefore impossible to validate. Moreover ecological fallacy and modifiable area unit problem can be an issue within secondary data; the assumption that all individuals in a group share the average characteri stics of that group and those trends within data are based upon existing boundaries that are unrelated to the phenomena in question. Secondary data will remain important to geographic research as a primary source of information to a growing number of data intensive applications. Using secondary data clearly gives the researchers important advantages such as data coverage, quality and costs as well as the ability to analyse phenomena that otherwise may be impossible such as analysis of populations at a global scale. It can be argued that â€Å"Data† refers to a body of information in numerical form therefore it can be argued that it is hard to categorise data as uniquely geographical except perhaps data which concerns the spatial characteristics of places and areas (Ebdon, 1985). GIS as a branch of mapping is seen as one of the basic uses of secondary data within physical geography due to its ability to provide an important route to enquiry enabling exploration and integration of geographical data (Freeman et al, 1993). Within the immediate future physical geographers have no sign of movement away from the statistical analysis and the importance of using secondary data and mathematical modelling is more likely to grow opposed to contract. Whereas within human geography the future is less clear; the positivist view point is being challenged leading to a number of coexisting approaches. Nonetheless according the Institute of British Geographers for the future â€Å"the numbers game is far from over† (Newby, 1980) and this analogy can be applied to many scientific disciplines.