Saturday, August 31, 2019

Managing and Developing People (Developing People) Essay

Introduction In this assignment I will be interviewing a member asking for their past experience for undergoing a training programme. I will be researching closely upon aspects†¦ * The need for the individual to be on the training programme? * Training method used? * What the cost was? * Any obstacles which made it difficult? These aspects would make the findings for knowing why the member took the training programme and if they gained any skills or knowledge when on the programme. Alongside with what troubles arose when carrying out the training. Interviewee Description The member which I will be interviewing is a 26 year old female called Miss Georgina McDonald who is smart and civilised. She is hard working and likes to socialise with peers and friends. She is able meet deadlines and able to work under pressure when a great load of work is put upon her. The work which Miss Georgina McDonald would train for would be to use the cash machine at Asda. Miss Georgina has had previous skill from her last job where she had to cash up all the finances of her fathers business on a daily basis. She has good numeric qualifications in which will benefit her for any job. Job Role In Miss Georgina’s previous job she had to cash up all the money which was done in her fathers business and had to input the tight figures so that it couldn’t affect the accounts for the business. Her father had made her do the financing as she had the qualifications for maths and was able to count up properly. In Asda the job role which she would want to do is being at the cashing machine as this is one of the good things she is capable of doing. Identifying Reason for being on Training Programme The environment in which everyone does business in is changing constantly, the knowledge and skill needed for the job will also change. The individual to be on the training programme is so she can improve her skill on how to work on the cash machine. Training for using the cash machine is very essential as proper calculations are compulsory. Asda wants to make sure that who ever work in the cashier section is well trained and have no problems being able to carry out tasks on how to manage the cashier. This is taken as one of the important parts in a business as finance’s can not go wrong. Asda pushes on getting the individual well trained to be able to manage any troubles caused by being able to find out where she has gone wrong. All this matters in training and what they should be taught, what they need to collect how much, they need to give and if they go wrong somewhere how they can cover it. Miss Georgina was given the training as she did not have any cashier skills which would guide her alongside with the job. She had to be given a good level of training so that she could manage a till properly. Miss Georgina had been given the training because she knew without any previous skill or knowledge she would not be able to run a till. There were appraisals with Miss Georgina which helped her with the running and to tell her of any mistakes she was making and setting out objectives for the next appraisal. Description of Training Method For the individual to be on a training programme is so they can handle the work place more efficiently and work with what ever they have been given with best of ability. Usually young people who have left or still studying go on training programmes as it gives them the knowledge and motivation in life. Training methods come useful in the future as it shows what the individual has achieved and what they can offer to the business. Training comes in different form for e.g†¦. * Induction – An induction usually is the best way for people getting involved into activities in a new environment. This helps them to know the new place and be familiar with the others. This helps peoples confidence and be able to communicate with members. In Asda it is essential to give a new comer an Induction this is so that they would get familiar with any health and safety aspects and know where any fire exits are located. In many cases induction days are taken so that individuals can get to know the workforce which they in. This helps build confidence and gain a good communication. * Job Shadowing – This training method is known as an activity which many organisation make employees do when doing a task. This activity can make an individual carry out a task and make them improve on in by someone senior watching or they could do the task by their own skill and be told what they could do better from improving the method. Asda would not use a job shadow to know what the member is capable of doing and how they would increase the skill by telling them what to do. * Mentoring – This method helps individuals to carry out an activity with a senior teaching it. It helps individuals know where they are going wrong and how they can improve it. This helps the individual do the job from its existing skill and if they do it different then expected it would be corrected. Mentoring is a good way of identifying the individual’s capability of doing a task and how they can do it. If a senior is to show them how to use a cash machine they would get to know what the functions are for. This method will be appropriate for Asda to do on the individual. * On the Job Training – Many businesses usually use the method of training the individual at the work place. This is so that they can work with the resources the have there and also start off with using equipment they have to offer. The trainee is ready to undergo any task at the workplace immediately. When working on the job it is also an advantage to get feedback straight away rather then carrying out a task then being told later on. When the mentoring is done it is possible for the member to get on the job training so that they can work on the equipment at the work place. It is more of a benefit to get training in the real life rather then going somewhere and spending time there. If the member is able to carry the task and get training at the same time this would be less time consuming and not costly at all. * Off the Job – Many businesses tend to send there trainee’s off to another place to learn how to carry out tasks. Resources are used which they offer there and they use them to carry the task. Off the job training also consists of sending an individual off to do a course which they learn at a college or university. Off the job training is worth doing at Asda as this could make the individual gain more experience and skill and carry out the task efficiently. Many times Asda does not send employee’s on off the job training as this is costly and time consuming. Identifying Training Needs for Trainee The reason for Miss Georgina to be on the training programme is so that she can increase on her productivity for what she is good at. This would make her efficient and comfortable in carrying out a day to day activity. The training needs which will benefit Miss Georgina would be†¦ > Higher Productivity > Efficiency > Confident in Numeric > Have a high level of Motivation > Good future opportunity The reason why Miss Georgina has to be given this training programme is so that she could gain more knowledge on what she is good at. Miss Georgina is not fully qualified and understands the misuse of inappropriate use of calculations, this is why she has been given the opportunity to go on a training programme which she can touch up on and make sure that she don’t make silly mistakes. Strength and Weakness The strengths for using the training method on the job training will be a strength as it will help the individual to get a better view of the organisation and who they will working with. This is an advantage because it increases confidence and able to socialise with piers. It builds a family environment when doing this aspect because before they can come in to the real job they would have made friends already. For carrying out an OJT this is a way which the member can increase in skills and be able to forward their knowledge to someone else. Advantages of On The Job Training * Training can be delivered at the optimum time, this means it can immediately perform the task any time in the real world. * The trainee will have the opportunity to practise immediately * Immediate feedback will be provided * Training is delivered to trainee from senior who can integrate the trainee in a team. The Weaknesses in a business will always be the time consuming which effects the running as this is a crucial time in a business. If training programmes are made long it will also effect the costing. A weakness for training a member is that after getting the training from somewhere they usually head off some where better. The weaknesses which Asda could face are†¦ Disadvantages for On the Job Training * Too much training can be delivered in one session causing of information overload. * The trainer may not have the right skill and knowledge to teach the trainee with. * If immediate practise is not accompanied by feedback the trainee can feel abandoned after the initial experience. Benefit and Costs for Training The costs for training the individual at Asda will cost nothing as it will be carried out on the job, meaning what every training the member will get will be done in Asda. The reason for this is that it will not cost at all and the individual will be able to stay on the premises that won’t need to go off some where else. The benefit for doing this training will be so that the member can increase their knowledge by doing it efficiently and also if they have the opportunity to get promoted they could be able to handle a sector in Asda. The benefit for members to have a training programme is so that they can increase their skills and knowledge in any task they have been specified, also carrying out tasks more efficiently and in a short amount of time. By giving training it helps individuals to cut down on mistakes and blunders made by them. By training it can help health hazards reducing hazards being encountered at the work place. The costs for having training are the cost of materials which may be needed for the process and also the time needed by the members which will be issuing the programme. For training to be carried out it takes up a great deal of time for the leader as they have to make sure what they are teaching the member is relevant to the programme specified. It is also costly when setting up the resources for using on the training area and time is needed for when doing the training. Obstacles for Training Training can be seen in different ways, firstly, the management of the company might see it as a way of making the company more efficient, as well as teaching important skills to employees in order to improve performance. At the same time it can be seen as a way of rewarding hardworking employees with a different environment for a short period of time. On the other hand, employees might look back on their last training session, still trying to work out what exactly it was they learnt from the experience, but nevertheless having enjoyed the change of scenery but hating the pile of work that greeted them on their return. If training is implemented correctly it can bring back great rewards such as greater workplace efficiency, specialised skills and knowledge as well as employee satisfaction. Finally remember that depending on how training is done, it can be very productive and useful or a complete waste of time and money, it can bring teams together or split them apart.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Political Power in the Prince by Machiavelli Essay

Machiavelli argues in another major work that the purpose of politics is to promote a â€Å"common good.† How does this statement relate to the ideas Machiavelli presents in The Prince? The fact that two of Machiavelli’s greatest and most famous works on political power came into being thanks to the downfall of his own political career is quite ironic. More ironic however is the way he contradicts his statements in each book about the purpose of political power. As previously stated, one of Machiavelli’s major works, referring directly to The Discourses on Livy (1517), argues that the purpose of political power is to promote a â€Å"common good†. Meanwhile, The Prince presents a ruler less worried about the â€Å"common good† and more concerned about maintaining and expanding political power at all costs. â€Å"Laws make men good,† states Machiavelli in book one of the discourses, after a long explanation about how men created politics to create order. At first men searched for the strongest and bravest among them to mold him into a leader they could obey. Machiavelli then says: â€Å"From this beginning came recognition of what is proper and good, as opposed to what is pernicious and wicked.† However, as time went on, the people became harder to satisfy and politics became more complicated. New forms of government and laws were created in order to keep the people in order because as he states in The Discourses: â€Å"men will never be good, except by necessity†. Simple leaders became the tyrants he promotes in The Prince. They sought to be feared by their people in order to be obeyed and maintain power. In The Prince the leader is no longer the strongest and the bravest, but the prudent, more astute. The leader is one that can predict things such as treachery and conspiracy and end it before it can cause further problems in his government. The Prince discusses many ways for an astute leader to rule his state and maybe one or two of these promote the â€Å"common good† of the people, and it isn’t even actual common good. In The prince, the appearance of a common good is more important than having it as a reality. A ruler must appear to be honest and good but doesn’t necessarily have to be. I believe the relation between Machiavelli’s two texts on the purpose of political power is that one describes what politics were made to be while the other discusses what they have actually come to be and how to keep them that way. Instead of a â€Å"common good† it goes more along the lines of what is good for the ruler. While the statements contradict each other more than once, I believe the texts to be somewhat complementary in the sense that alone, they each give a different side or view of what politics actually are, while reading them both gives the reader an expanded, more complete understanding, not only on what politics are and how to maintain that political power, but also on why it has to be that way â€Å"for the good of the people.†

Thursday, August 29, 2019

A tragicomedy is a comedy with serious elements or overtones*. To what extent can the History boys be classed a tragicomedy?

The play is comic and shows clear features of comedies throughout, such as slapstick humour and farce. This is combined with ‘serious elements’ (often used for humour) such as Hector fiddling the boys, which fits in with the genre of tragicomedy. The debate rises where the serious elements seem not to fit into a comedy, such as the protagonist dying, potentially preventing a happy ending. Some argue there are too many elements that do not fit into the genre of comedies, for ‘The History Boys’ to even be classed a tragicomedy. Serious elements are used for humour in the play, which fits into the definition of a comedy with serious ‘overtones’. The obvious example for this is Hector fiddling with the boys. When Dakin asks Scripps ‘What happened with Hector? On the bike? ’ he replies with comic dialogue, saying ‘I think he thought he’d got me going. In fact it was Tudor Economics Documents, Volume Two’ (pg21). This line always gets a laugh from the audience, and the humour fits into the genre of comedies. As the boys do not take the paedophilia seriously (the audience is aware Scripps is not affected, as he cracks a joke and acts normal), the audience do not either. This distancing effect of comedy allows the ‘serious elements’ to be viewed in a comic, light-hearted way, which fits in to the definition of a tragicomedy. Another example is when Hector hits the boys for using ‘foul, festering, grubby-minded’ language. This is slapstick humour, commonly found in comedies, originating out of a serious ‘element’ of a teacher hitting their students. However, some would argue the play couldn’t be classed as a comedy at all, as it does not have a happy ending, which is vital for comedies. The protagonist, Hector, ‘came off’ his motorbike in a crash. Scripps makes what happened to Hector clear when he says ‘someone dies at school and you remember it all your life’(pg 106). Normally in a tragicomedy the ending will have a sense of catharsis, but there is arguably not one in the play, as it ends on what seems to be his funeral, where (according to stage directions) there are ‘photographs of Hector as a young man’(pg106). The reflection on Hector’s life is melancholy and the tragic effect of Hector’s death negatively affects the boys, as Scripps ‘remember(s)’ it all his life. Despite this, it is possible to argue the ending is cathartic and does fit in to a genre of comedy and tragicomedy. In response to Hector’s death, the audience could see it as an optimistic release for Hector from a life of discontent: his marriage is passionate- his wife married him for ‘lukewarm attentions’ (pg92), his career is over as ‘boys have become work’(pg95), his future is ‘buying a van, filling it with books and taking it round country markets’(pg94). Read also History Quizzes Also, there is the ‘splenid news’ of all the boys getting into Oxbridge- even Rudge (the ‘dumb’ character, often a feature of comedies). This is particularly cathartic, as it structurally mirrors how Dakin explains to Hector (and consequently the audience) that they are ‘all going in for Oxford and Cambridge’ in the third scene. This was the purpose of the boys being at the school for this period, and was commonplace in society at the time, when there was (and still is) huge competition to get into Oxbridge (the top two universities of Britain*). For the audience to watch them work for it and achieve their aspirations, a sense of catharsis is created, resulting in a happy ending, especially as the boys are mainly successful in their future lives, becoming ‘solicitors’ and ‘chartered accountants’(pg107). As the ending is happy, it can fit into the genre of tragicomedy. Some would argue that the character of Posner prevents the play being a comedy. He is outcast and isolated throughout. Posner perfectly demonstrates his problems in a list, saying ‘I’m a Jew. I’m small. I’m homosexual. And I live in Sheffield. I’m fucked. ’ He is even viewed as an outcast by Hector, who dismisses him, saying ‘never mind’ when Posner volunteers for a lift when Hector asks if he ‘can give someone a lift’(pg17). Normally in a comedy, an outcast will find redemption and improve his/her life, resulting in a happy ending. This is not the case. Posner drops out of university and is the only boy who leads a terrible life. This is shown in a structural shift where Mrs. Lintott describes the boys’ future. Posner ‘lives alone†¦ has periodic breakdowns’ and only has friends ‘on the Internet’(Pg108). This tragedy is heightened by the fact that Posner was the cleverest boys- ironic for the audience, as they would be aware of this wasted potential. Bennett also based Posner on himself, as when he was a teenager he was under-developed, which made his ‘school days unhappy’. Posner seems to represent the stereotypical outcast. A character like this, some argue, is so tragic it (along with a couple of other factors, such as the ending debatably not being happy) prevents the play from being a comedy and therefore a tragicomedy. This argument can be countered by the view that serious messages are often at the heart of tragicomedies. As Ustinov said, ‘comedy is simply a funny way of being serious’. This dates back to Shakespearean time, where the dangers of irrational love are portrayed in a humorous forest scene in A Midsummers Night Dream. Bennett could be raising the serious issue of teaching methods, as Posner was the only one that failed, but the ‘only one who truly took everything to heart’(Pg108) from Hector. This suggests Irwin’s methods are better, which rings true in Bennett’s personal life, who claimed he used Irwin’s methods to get in to Oxford. Furthermore, Posner contributes to the genre of comedy by creating humour. Verbal humour is used when he lists his problems and concludes that he is ‘fucked’, one of play’s famous lines. There are other serious messages throughout the play that also create humour, such as Hector’s message of ‘pass the parcel’ with literature. For example, Hector making the boys recite poems and being appalled by Irwin’s suggestion to use quotations he had taught to be ‘trotted out to make a point’(Pg48) is a form of absurd behaviour, common in comedies. A teacher’s job is to help make students make points and do well in exams- Hector does not see this. These ‘serious elements’ have important messages, but also create humour, which fits in to the genre of tragicomedy. Erma Bombeck once said â€Å"there is a thin line that separates laughter and pain, comedy and tragedy, humour and hurt†.

Developing an integrated Marketing Mix Plan for a new brand (TEA) Research Paper

Developing an integrated Marketing Mix Plan for a new brand (TEA) - Research Paper Example The firms fail to address the competitive forces by developing their marketing policies will minimize the competitors (William 56). The marketing policies adopted by the organizational leaders, they direct their firms towards gaining the competitive advantage in the value added tea industry are discussed in the research. Data is collected through interviews with founders of nine firms using an interview guide and use records at the UK Tea. The results produced that brand structure, position advertising, product discrimination, cost control, and customer center were the most important policies approved by the organization. Opening up new markets abroad, fair trade, ecological sustainability, and closer delivery were acknowledged as imperative policies that are distinguished compact from contenders and located them among the market influential. It was also discovered that the deliberate resolutions could be endorsed to vision of the leaders, menace taking, their eagerness and assurance . Identifying marketing policies depending on the firm’s competence and modernization, and is found fundamental for the cost added tea export industries to attain production realization as well as to make significant involvement to the United Kingdom market. Introduction The Tea Processing market research reports on that provides the key industry with the analysis and market statistics, measures the market size, analyzes the current and future industry trends and identifies to the industries the share for the largest markets. The IBIS World publishes the largest collection of the economic report so that an industry can have a supply chain, economic drivers and key buyers and sufficient markets for their products. Tea is distinctly the British beverage, and more than 60 billion mugs of tea are taken annually in the United Kingdom only. The Britons are noted as the world tea drinkers per each capita, it has over 1,200 diverse types of tea sold all over the country. Viewing it f rom the economic depression and dilapidated customer expenditure, the Tea processing industry has remained resilient, due to its staple and cheap nature. The majority of the of the tea that is consumed in the United Kingdom, is the black tea type, it is primarily made from a blend of East African and South Asian tea leaves. There is a low amount of tea that is grown in the United Kingdom; the industry is exposed to the volatilities including global sourcing, for example, weather, crop diseases, political unrests and other external factors (Allen 42). The consumption of tea mostly ranges at 88% at the household purchasing. The South East part has the highest proportion of tea drinkers at 94%. According to the geographical spread of the tea manufacturing industries follow the trends of population development and the disposable capita income. Considering the low cultivation of tea in the U.K, and the large multinational companies such as Tetley and Unilever, they occupy the dispensatio n, amalgamation, covering and distribution of tea, and they are located close to their major customers (Data monitor 78). The wholesale bypass keeps the industry on its toes, through the IBIS World’s coffee, tea, and spices. The wholesaling market investigation, report provides the latest industry statistics and trends, making it possible for consumers to recognize the products and customers during the revenue augmentation and effectiveness. The manufacturing statement identifies the principal corporation and offers premeditated manufacturing analysis for the key aspects that manipulate the market at large (Mersey 34). The Coffee, Tea and Spices industries has had a bitter and marvelous run, even

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Review the general applications of monoclonal antibodies,emphasising Essay

Review the general applications of monoclonal antibodies,emphasising their advantage and limitations with specific examples - Essay Example They have received usage in the areas of medicine, molecular biology and biochemistry; when used in the field of medicine, they are identified from the end of the name of the non-proprietary medicine, is identified because it contains –mab in its name. This paper will explore the general applications of monoclonal antibodies, and the discussion will offer more emphasis to their limitations and advantages. Discussion Monoclonal antibodies are used in the field of medicine for the detection of different varieties of toxins, drugs or hormones. When used for this general purpose, they are aimed at the target area in the body of the individual. For example, when used to detect or stop the growth of cancer cells, these antibodies are targeted at the specific proteins found on the surfaces of some cancer cells. When injected into the body of the individual, these monoclonal antibodies locate the cancer cells and then attach themselves to the given cancer cells or antigens (Kontermann , 2005). In some cases, they are used on their own and in others conjugated with other substances. When naked monoclonal antibodies are injected into the body, they bind themselves to the target receptors or the antigens found on the cancer cells being targeted (Yarbo, Wujcik and Gobel, 2011). The advantages of using monoclonal antibodies include that when they are used to target some types of cancer cells, they will attach themselves to the particular receptors of the cancer cells, and then they stop the continuation of the growth of cancer cells. Some of the examples used for this purpose of treating cancerous growth include rituximab (Biburger, Weth and Wels, 2005). Rituximab is used for this curative purpose to treat some types of B-cell on-Hodgkin lymphoma. The second monoclonal antibody type is trastuzumab, which is used for the treatment of HER2-positive cancerous growths on breasts (American Cancer Society, 2008). The disadvantage of using monoclonal antibodies is that they can be attached to toxins, which are made from plants or bacteria. In the case that they are used to transport these toxins, the toxic element is likely to affect the targeted cancer cells as well as the normal cells of the patient (Yarbo, Wujcik and Gobel, 2011, p. 558-560). Towards resolving this issue, researchers are in the process of researching for antigens that affect the cancerous cells only, and not the normal cells. Monoclonal antibodies are used in the medical processes of radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunodetection of cancer, where some of the new variants of the antibodies can be targeted at the cell membranes of the cancerous cells of a patient (Goldenberg et al., 2006). The advantage of monoclonal antibodies when used for this purpose includes that they help in enhancing the background ratios of tumours and they also aid the delivery of higher dosages, as compared to the case when they are directly conjugated for use with other compounds (Rossi et al., 2006). The disa dvantages of using monoclonal antibodies in this manner include that the functionality of many of the drugs that have been developed is not approved by health and drug testing organizations. One of the new cancer drugs based on the working of monoclonal antibody technology is Ritoxin, which was approved for use in health institutions, by the FDA in November 1997 (Salvana and Salata, 2009). Monoclonal

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Do employment consultants need to be trained when dealing with the Essay

Do employment consultants need to be trained when dealing with the unemployed - Essay Example An employment consultant is the link between a job seeker and the company where a vacancy exists. The consultant has the unenviable job of not only matching the skill sets of the applicant with the position, but also to judge the mental make-up and socio-psychological responses of the applicant in different situations. A highly qualified and well-experienced person might be unsuitable for an opening because of his temperament. On the other hand, a lesser qualified person, but with a different temperament might be right for the job. Not everyone is capable of managing people. The person needs to be outgoing, be able to perceive the unspoken needs of the clients and co-workers. Similarly, not everyone is suited for research. A candidate might have the required qualifications, but no desire for knowledge or curiosity. In my opinion, a lesser qualified person, but with an intense desire for knowledge would be better suited for the job. Thus, it would not be only the degrees and certificates that need to be verified during an interview, but also the attunement of the candidate for the mentioned opening. The social background of the candidate and exposure to various situations also holds a key to the candidate’s behavior under different life-situations. Then again, there could be gender differences. Aspirations and dedication to different kinds of jobs could be different in men and women. Though traditionally, men might be suited for a particular job, an enterprising woman might be able to do more justice to it. Similarly, while society might consider a particular job as â€Å"lady’s job, some men might be more suitable for the same. Thus, it is the consultant’s job to sense and discover these aptitudes in the candidates and offer them suitable openings. (iii)The ways in which we look at the world, are known in the literature as â€Å"paradigms†. These influence how we perceive problems and their solutions, and what we choose to

Monday, August 26, 2019

Create a marketing plan for the next year from a case study Essay

Create a marketing plan for the next year from a case study - Essay Example Because of high sugar content, governors may remove status of 5-a-day from fruit juice and smoothies (Mintel, 2014).There are several governmental initiatives undertaken in order to reduce the amount of sugar people consume. However, until the 5-a-day guidance in relation to fresh juices and smoothies is not removed, the companies can use it as powerful marketing tool (displaying 5-day-logo on packaging) (Keynote, 2015). In 2014, Public Health England published a guidance on sugar consumption and policy â€Å"Sugar Reduction: Responding to the Challenge†. This publication addressed the problems of sugar consumption between 2008 and 2012, including fruit juice, and other food and drink items. This publication outlined some actions, including: launch of national-wide digital marketing campaign addressing the problems of sugar consumption; necessity to conduct analysis and evidence reviews on different subjects, including advertising of food and drink to children. Also, the PHE informed about a necessity to consider imposition of taxes on sugar-sweetened drinks (Keynote, 2015). GDP in the UK has shown year-on-year growth between 2010 and 2013. Taking into consideration uncertain economic conditions across the globe, the UK’s economy demonstrates stability and continuous recovery after financial crisis (Keynote, 2015). This trend positively impact consumer’s purchasing confidence. Since 2013 consumer confidence in the UK has continued its rising. Moreover, it is forecasted that consumer confidence will continuously grow during the next five year (Mintel, 2014). It means that consumers will have greater psychological freedom to buy more, including fruit juices, juice drinks, and smoothies. The purchasing behaviour of the UK population has changed towards more healthy foods and drinks. As people become more health conscious, they

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Law of Criminal Evidence Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Law of Criminal Evidence - Case Study Example This includes any informal chat with police officers and contradictory to popular belief, right to silence has not been abolished.7 In recent years it has been endangered so that a magistrate can draw adverse inference from the silence. Adrian, taken to Police Station on the suspicion of murdering wife Sandra, had informed his solicitor that he had been drinking heavily. According to solicitor's advice, Adrian keeps silent during interrogation. During trial, he testifies that he kept silent on solicitor's instructions as he was under influence of alcohol and could have accused himself8. Again his testimony that he killed Sandra under provocation of her having an affair creates a controversy. If he was going to testify so, in what way he could have accused himself more than that One wonders at the necessity of remaining silent during interrogation. No doubt it provided him time to frame his evidence; but his confession to crime contradicts the relief provided by being silent9 and it is not his role to assist the police to build up a case against him and it is always better to say nothing if in doubt and it does not prove Adrian's guilt. Right exists to avoid self-incrimination and it extends from the moment free movement is terminated either by arrest or by being in police station, till the end of trial. It cannot be said that is very practical in Adrian's case10 although the background of the case is very important and throw further light. "Whether advice to remain silent is the result of a case specific evaluation or whether it is a strategy applied to classes of case or classes of suspect, or whether it is a general strategy applied by certain types of staff utilised for police station advice by some firm of solicitors11" Terrorism laws have undermined the significance of this right. As it stands, while accused is entitled to remain silent, he is also cautioned that during trial adverse inference could be drawn from such a silence, as being silent due to guilt, or planning to fabricate fiction. In Adrian's case, as what he told the court could have as well been told the police as even dislodging of alibi do not exist here. It could also be argued that he deliberately kept silent to misguide the interrogating officers and prosecution. According to research, protecting others too could be a reason for silence. "Although it is often assumed that guilt is the only significantly occurring motive for silence, the present findings suggest that protecting others is a motive in a small but significant proportion of silence cases12." In May, 2000, a couple convicted on drug charges won legal action in European Court of Human Rights over comments of the trial judge on their silence13. ECHR ruled that their fair trial rights were violated by judge's comments on their silence during interrogation14. As they were suffering from heroin withdrawal symptoms, they were asked by solicitor to remain silent15. Judge had given the option of drawing an 'adverse inference' from their silence. Court also ruled that silence is not an absolute right in all cases even though it is accepted as the most fundamental right of the suspects; but was curtailed by Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994. Failure to mention fact can be allowed to draw inference. QUESTION 2: Robert who had

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Radiation Treatment of Foods Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Radiation Treatment of Foods - Research Paper Example The preservation of the quality of the food in terms of flavor, texture and components is also another advantage of the radiation method as compared to other methods (Alothman et al. 201). The first benefit of radiation in food preservation is in terms of effectiveness in disinfection from different forms of contaminants. The use of radiation is recognized as a physical and non-thermal method of food preservation also referred to as cold-pasteurization used to decrease or even remove pathogens and contaminants from food. The process is commonly used for the â€Å"removal of pathogens in fruit juices, hindering the spoilage of seafood and meat products and prevention of microbial growth such as Salmonella in poultry products.† Lower doses referred to as radurization are used to hinder enzyme action such as sprouting and ripening (Dionisio et al. 1267). The process of decontamination then can improve the shelf-life of the food and related products (Alothman et al. 202). The effi ciency of radiation treatment on the basis of price and time is another important advantage. The process of radiation treatment is time-efficient due to the fact that compared to other methods it has short processing time.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Infant-Toddler Environment Rating Scale (ITERS-R) Assignment Essay

Infant-Toddler Environment Rating Scale (ITERS-R) Assignment - Essay Example The scale of space and furnishings, personal daily care and routine, listening and talking, activities, interaction, program structure and parents and staff are seven aspects to be evaluated in this study. According to the scale, it observes children in a kindergarten. Through improving the quality of the learning environment, education programs for children with special needs in a regular class are better implemented. I first arrived at Kidango Decoto Center, a child care facility for toddlers, located at Union City. The head-teachers and supervisors name of the center is called Catalina Garcia. I observed a classroom, which the age range is between eighteen months old and three years old, and the center has four teachers and sixteen children. This observation lasted about three hours in the morning, from 9:00 am up until 12:00 pm. On this morning, my observation was specifically to use the infant-toddler environment rating scale to assist in my evaluation. Students were arriving in the classroom at around 8:30 am, and they were offered breakfast. After the breakfast around 9:15 am, all the students got in their respective the classrooms. They were engaging in free play time where there were prepared games, crafts and interacted with their teachers and classmates. I was seated in the classrooms corner, where the children could not easily see me, and this observation needed not to be distracted by my presence in the classroom. Childhood is a curious, imaginative, energetic, adventurous age. Therefore, health and safety is the primary factor, in the kindergarten classroom environment settings. Secondly, the class should give the children, the same feeling as home. Let the children feel that they are here to master thoroughly. By setting the environment, teachers should ask themselves, what valuable things they want to pass to the children. They should also

Thursday, August 22, 2019

DNA - Genetically modified food Essay Example for Free

DNA Genetically modified food Essay Virtually every crop we eat have undergone hundreds of years of genetic modification by farmers and scientist in search of desirable traits. Selective breeding and hybrid strains have contributed immeasurably to farm productivity during this time. Over the past 30 years however, genetic engineering has been revolutionized. While before, a farmer wanting to develop a frost resistant tomato would be able to breed towards one only if the necessary genes were available somewhere in tomatoes or a near relative to tomatoes, modern biological engineering techniques overcome such restrictions. Genetic traits from outside a species gene pool, in the tomatos case from an arctic fish, can be spliced into the organism to create an entirely different species, a transgenic organism with the typical traits of a tomato and frost resistance from a fish. The most widely used method of gene splicing, recombinant DNA, uses biochemical scissors called restriction enzymes to cut the strings of DNA, selecting required genes. These are then ferried by a virus or a bacterium that infects the host, smuggling the gene into the plants DNA. In this way scientists have been able to create slow ripening and seedless fruit, crops that grow in unfavourable conditions and are resistant to disease or herbicides and milk from cows given a genetically engineered growth hormone. The benefits of gene technology in terms of food production are enormous. The most common genetically engineered crops contain modifications that make the plants resistant to certain diseases and herbicides, or allow them to produce their own pesticides, thereby eliminating or reducing the need to spray. So-called Bt corn, for example, contains a gene resistant to the harmful mycotoxin fungus and herbicide producers, Monsanto have created a strain of soybeans genetically modified to be unaffected by their product Roundup. The soybean farmer therefore can avoid targeting specific weeds and require just one application of a general weed-killer, reducing costs and agricultural waste run-off. Genetically modified crops are also being adapted to grow in salty, dry or frosty environments, contain edible vaccines, have a longer shelf life and be more nutritious. A group of Swiss and German scientists recently developed a strain of GM rice know as ? golden rice due to its altered colour. Containing genes that produce a unusually high amount of beta-carotene (vitamin A), this rice could be a solution to the thousands of poor children in Asia who eat little but rice and go blind or die from lack of vitamin A Public reaction to the use of recombinant DNA in genetic engineering however has been mixed. Sliding US export commodities such as genetically modified soybeans and corn have highlighted hardened public opinion and widespread resistance to biotech crops, especially in the European Union. Concerns about GM foods fall into three categories: economics, environmental hazards and human health risks. The latter two have been the subject of hot debate, both in Australia and overseas. Environmental damage from GM crops can be caused through various channels. One of the main concerns has been the possibility of gene transfer to a non-target species, that is crops engineered for herbicide tolerance and weeds cross-breeding, resulting in the transfer of the herbicide resistance to create ? superweeds. In addition, environmentalists fear that transgenic plants may proliferate rapidly, pollinating natural plants in their surroundings eliminating existing species. Further environmental suspicions include those of unintended harm to other organisms (especially non-target insects) and of the reduced effectiveness of pesticides once insects become tolerant to a crops natural pesticide. Questions have also been raised on the human impact of genetically modified organisms. Critics of recombinant DNA fear that the pathogenic, or disease-producing organisms used in some recombinant DNA experiments might develop extremely infectious forms that could cause worldwide epidemics. Likewise, the unknown effect of foreign genes introduced into GM food crops in terms of human health also presents a controversial issue. Furthermore, there is a possibility that introducing a gene into a plant may create a new allergen or cause an allergic reaction in susceptible individuals. A proposal to incorporate a gene from Brazil nuts into soybeans in order to increase their nutritional value was abandoned when it was found that the genetically engineered soybeans caused an allergic reaction in people sensitive to Brazil nuts. For these reasons, extensive testing and labelling of GM foods may be required to avoid the possibility of harm to consumers with food allergies. Biotechnology has started to revolutionise food production, with fantastic results. With the world population of 6 billion expected to double in the next 50 years and an adequate food supply becoming a major challenge it will no doubt continue to do so in the future.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Globalization & concept Essay Example for Free

Globalization concept Essay Globalization is a concept that has emerged over recent past that have gained a lot of attention from the global people. Globalization is not anew concept because it has developed over time due to the interaction of people from ti me to time. The definition of globalization takes new direction every time because of its usage and transcends all spheres of life (Oregon State 2008). According to Robertson (1992) socialist define it a the comprehension and intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole unit. It has been elevated by the fact that the world has become more interdependent than before as from 20th century. The term is loosely used to symbolize meaning of consciousness, receptiveness and understanding of cultures, appreciation of the world socio-economics and ecological aspects. The term global village emerged in early 1960s to mean a shrinking world which was popularized by the media. The media has also tried to emphasize on the global community concept. The subject of globalization has shaped its objectiveness and subjectiveness. The evolution of globalization has been triggered by events such as wars and conflicts, the emergence of third world countries, expansion of international and supra international corporations and organizations. This is also accelerated by the idea of global economy(Robertson 1992). Globalization cuts across all academic disciplines and have implications on morals and values of people in the world. This is a problem that has generated other terms as deglobalization and globalism. Deglobalization attempts to reduce the impact of globalization while the globalism used used negatively to mean one worldism and cosmopolitanism (Robertson 1992). According to Scott (1997) globalization is visible and powerful order that directs the former concern to the geopolitical stage. It can be measured across the globe by consumers taste identity and by its homogeneity of taste. In the context of global culture it is evident in the distribution of the product. Globalization can also be defined as the historical structures established by societies over time that has exponentially increased in the present time. This has been achieved through mobility of goods and services necessitated by infrastructural development. The idea is largely cordoned by the elites terming it inevitable but the masses view it as danger to traditional life, livelihoods and values (GPF 2008). Herman (1999) emphasize it as the active process extending beyond borders, cross border structural facilities and link of corporate organizations. He adds that it is an ideology that wants to surpass its resistance and uphold it as beneficial and unstoppable. The emergence of globalization has led to theories defining its relevance and importance to world inhabitants. This has been ans issue of international systems that make demarcation of countries l which systematically create and partition separated by economic and process factors. These form the basis of global events that bring a perspective of the world as a systematic entity. This is virtually so because of given set of societies that dictate world unity trends and systems. This is referred to the capitalistic advancement of nations like America to which is characterized by division of labour, political and military relations that accompany economic trends while religion and culture follows simultaneously (Robertson 1992). Instability in the domestic and foreign structures have caused the rise of globalization as seen by the growth of communication and cultural academies, rise of movements, organizations and special interest groups. Globalization has therefore grown through several stages such as universalism, natural sociologies, internationalism, indigenization and later globalization (Robertson 1992). In this context universalism refers to scientific provision to humanity of basic principles and laws where ideas human fraternity is adhered to. While national sociologies emphasized on the professional academies that held intellectual products with high esteem. This is followed by the concept of making all countries follow the systems through internationalism as depicted by the third world creation. This was fostered by the indigenization stage that made such countries to adapt to methods and systems. Thus globalization emerged as the interaction of nationalism and internationalism which is punctuated with problems and conflicts at different life stages. The causes and mechanism behind this are the ones driving up globalization (Robertson 1992). Global issues as refer to in the context of culture have varied significance and measures. First Soules (2002) define culture as knowledge, acts, beliefs, laws, customs and aspirations of inhabitants in different settings around the world. This is identical to certain group of people. However mass culture which appeals to world wide audience is generally referred to popular culture. Any change in the traditional values, norms and daily order raise eyebrows of which is considered deviation from the normal life. But as people move there is interaction of cultures that fuse and transform into new culture that is can be described as global culture (Soules 2002). Therefore, popular culture is symbolic of globalization because of its persuasive nature which cuts across all national cultures. The popular culture referred to here represents popularity of certain personality in areas of music industry. These include stars, products and infrastructure associated with it commonly described as global communication (Scott 1997). Although globalization affects politics it has not received much attention as popular culture but film industry has been discussed at international level whether to be associated with it. It is paramount to not that though politics has not extended beyond its national jurisdiction it is much important in the global culture. Politics is limited by its weak structures at international level than popular culture that is advanced by its network of transnational corporations (Scott 1997). However, global culture may not be a definite evidence that it exists across the world because of its dependence on time, space and distributional mechanisms. But it passes across all nations based on several factors such as global production and global distribution. Whereby global production is brought about by the presence of transnational corporations which control 70 percent of the entertainment industry such as Sony and Tristar Corporations. The global distribution of this popular culture products signify the extend by which it reaches world wide audience. Technological advancement such as use of television cinema and satellite communication media channels have made popular culture received to wide audience in the world (Scott 1997). However, global culture just like the popularity of English language has received its share of criticism. For instance the spread of world single culture as advocated by the entertainment industry does not necessarily mean that the audience practice the same. It can only lead to global multiculturalism where diverse culture can be integrated in order to appeal to popular audience. Although this may lead to cultural plurality but their merger could lead to the a synthesized global culture (Scott 1997). More so the availability of the product does not mean it used for the intended purpose. For example the Soviet Union abused it as such spreading capitalistic ideology of Americans. Most view popular culture as the Americanization of the world. Hence it cannot be received globally without struggle and negotiation through the political and national structures. Global culture also faces a couple of restrictions that is largely dependent on the institutional frameworks, policies of governments, and levels of operations. Institutional frameworks play crucial role in the supply and distribution regulatory structures, education, industrial and economic climate for its operation. Policies that regulate broadcasting, copyright rights and taxation or subsidies play a significant role in the advancement of popular culture (Scott 1997). Most governments do not have cultural policies but have several that indirectly implicate culture within their national jurisdiction. this reflects their priority is promoting culture in their own country. Therefore, global culture faces an uphill task to be accommodated institutionally and into the policies of the respective governments(Scott 1997). Herman (1999) states that globalization is an ideology that is perpetuated by corporate organizations for their own interest. This is seen in the deregulation of several government on its budget, entitlement and free trade.. it does affect the nationalistic protection of indigenous companies while allowing the entry of international multinationals. This ideology has significant impact on economic status of weaker countries. Although it yields economic benefits its impact of whole society is detrimental (Alston 1998). Globalization is argued as one that weakens democracy in several countries. This is a result that governments are forced to enact regulations that give due advantage to the business community. For instance international agreements signed like the4 North American Free Trade Agreement and European Monetary Union. This has been used under the disguise of democracy to weaken the countrys ability to fight for improved wage salary of its workforce. Instead they are supposed to cut labor costs in order to obtain investment from the corporations giving the business community an upper hand to make huge profits (Herman 1999). Through such agreement most countries have fallen victim of deteriorating welfare standards of its citizens. Countries with high cost of labor have lost foreign investment because of relocation to cheap labor countries. Labor movement have also been weakened as opposed to the democratic freedom given of bargaining. This has med policy makers to make business friendly policies at the expense of state welfare. This countries have also advanced restrictive legislation that has tight grip national budget so as to absorbing inflation shocks hence accelerating unemployment and underemployment (Herman 1999). The ideological campaigns advocated b y the business community has reduced government responsibility to support its public hence making its citizens vulnerable to the corporation demands. Also limited financial sources by the individual government have accelerated their dependence on global sponsors that devise policies more favorable to them. It far negates the ability of leaders to develop mechanisms that favor its masses (Tabb 2002). This is evident in the efforts advanced by IMF and World Bank together with media support. This organizations developed conditions that were supposed to be met before funds are released to the countries in need. For instance, IMF developed structural adjustment programs to third world countries outlining conditions such as lean government and privatization. The implications was loss of jobs, increased poverty, increased wealth gap between the rich nations and poor nations (Herman 1999). Globalization in its basic fact is the ideological concept of business elite that send strong signal to people that it cannot be brushed away easily and it is better. Although it has the benefit of increasing interest rates in the stock market and income, inequality rise is more across all countries. For example in the United States productivity rose by 35 percent while underemployment, job security, loss of benefit and lean production system increased in bigger margin (Herman 1999). CONCLUSION Globalization is a new concept that cuts across a all spheres of life such as culture, academic, political, economic and socially. In this paper i have discussed mainly how globalization influenced global culture and its implications. Global culture is defined as mass culture that appeals to world wide audience. It is particularly advanced by popular culture through different media channels. Globalization also touches political and economic aspects of several countries this has a direct effect on the democracy, economic status and welfare of its citizens. Globalization has beneficial impact on the government and citizens with varied margins. REFERNCE Alston, P, 1998, Statement, UN committee, Available at: http://www. globalpolicy. org/globaliz/define/unstate. htm Global policy forum, 2008, globalization,Global policy forum, Available at; http://www. globalpolicy. org/globaliz/index. htm Herman, E, S, 1999, Treat globalization, New politics, vol. 7, No. 2, Available at: Oregon State, 2008, Definition, Available at: oregonstate. edu/instruct/anth370/gloss. html Robertson, R, 1992, Globalization, SAGE, London. Scott, A, 1997, Global culture, Routledge, London. Soules, M, 2002, Culture, History, Available at: http://www. mala. bc. ca/~soules/media112/culture. htm Tabb, W, 1999, Progressive globalism, Monthly review, Available at: http://www. globalpolicy. org/globaliz/define/progglob. htm

Impact of Technology on Information

Impact of Technology on Information Task Write 1500-2000 words explaining with example how technology has changed the way information is used. Your essay should cover four technologies. For the purpose of this essay it is recommended that you do comparative research on technologies and their impact on information. What is the Information Technology? Information technology (IT) The Application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. Information technology made human life is so easy in the 21 century. Our life is changed greatly more and more in last few year. What the reason behind that? Ofcource Technology is a main factor producing and promoting of changing human life. All technologies who use information that are most important of in the world. In Google map, you can find any location easily and reach there. In transport, you can get information of timing of arrival and depart of buses, trains, planes etc. Everyone is listening music or reading news or viewing movies from the palm electrical stuff, Mp3, I pad, mobile or other similar things. This essay is look back of technologies which are conduct or related information spreading, collection, retrieving and application. It would be ungrateful on our part not to recognize how immense the boons are which modern technology has given to mankind. Can we think of living without computers, mobile phones, electricity or modern methods of publishing? We all know the impact of technology in medical science education system on us. EDUCATION How education system change in past years. So many changes are made compare to past. At the past student learn from his teacher. They had book knowledge. All information can find from only book. It is so time consuming. Finding information from book is get bored the student. Teacher ask question to student and student answer the questions. Information can get so far from books. How Changes made in education system? First change in education system is E-Learning method. In past year if student want information and study about that then they want to go at particular place or get information from book. Now in E-Learning system student get information at the home using internet. They can easily learn from so many easy method without moving place. Student get directly get information from web. Using this method so many change made in education system. Bernard Luskin, an educational technology pioneer, advocated that the e of e-learning should be interpreted to mean exciting, energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, excellent, and educational in addition to electronic. Parks suggested that the e should refer to everything, everyone, engaging, easy. These broad interpretations focus on new applications and developments, as well as learning theory and media psychology. (Education technology article) Main purpose of E-Learning system is that to share method and information on E-Learning, development of common and Euro control deliverables, such as the best practice and service provide documentation for E-Learning development and the digital learning asset sharing platform A learner can get more knowledge and information from visual ex. Video, Poster Board etc. compare to audio. Poster board take place of audio visual in this modern system. In school, Colleges everywhere learning can done by projector or board. It is easy to catch up information for user. Speaking of textbooks, e-books are becoming more prevalent in schools with the advancements of e-reader and tablet computers. I think in the near future that students will not carry around big bulky Backpacks filled with heavy textbooks. In past student carry the heavy book and get information. That the boring thing to do. In present year, student can download e-book in your laptop, phones, and tablets. And whenever they information or anything they take phone and get information in easy way. In this present year people can expand yourself from knowing different languages. Technology facilitates our ability to extend classroom community by using web-based platforms. Teachers and students can use this platform to discuss homework, post assignments, and interact with peers as they work on projects. We now use libraries, but so much of our research and learning is now more web-based. What used to take hours in the library to find, we find instantaneously. As a result, we need to sort through huge amounts of information efficiently. We know how to get and use information. I would argue that because it takes less time to find information, we spend more time digesting, thinking, and learning about new information. Radio Radio is the device that get information from any place in world. The meaning and usage of the word radio has developed in parallel with developments within the field of communications and can be seen to have three distinct phases: electromagnetic waves and experimentation; wireless communication and technical development; and radio broadcasting and commercialization .( Radio technology began with wireless technology. Radio technology is related to other wireless invention â€Å"TELEGRAH†, â€Å"TELEPHONE†. In fact all three technology are similar. In 1873 James Clerk Maxwell experiments with the radio waves through free space. After more experiment by David E. Hughes and Heinrich Rudolf Hertz in signal from radio waves, they invent the concept of radio. Radio is first device that allow the mass communication. It has able to information transfer from far and wide area, not only for national wide, it include also international wide. Following image of old radio. First mainly use of radio is contact between ships in the sea. During time of distress, a sinking ship would use a radio messaged nearby vessels and stations on the land to ask for aid. The radio saw a surge of use during the First World War. Both sides used the radio to relay messages to troops and top officials as well as people not on the battle front. At the end of the war, President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points was sent to Germany via use of the radio. After the war’s end, with the grow up broadcasting began in Europe and United State. Radio-telegraphy is the sending by radio waves the same spot dash message (Morse code) utilized as a part of a telegraph. At starting transmitters were called flash whole machines. It was created and utilized generally for the correspondence of boat to-shore and boat to-ship. The imparting was between two focuses, and it was not open radio television as what we are utilizing these days. It was an upheaval in human data change and transmitting. As early as 1899 the United States Army set up wireless communications with a lightship off Fire Island, New York. Before a wireless system was used by US navy, they even used homing pigeons for communication. As early as 1899 the United States Army set up wireless communications with a lightship off Fire Island, New York. Before a wireless system was used by US navy, they even used homing pigeons for communication. Though we have plenty of choice of new products to listen to news or other things but radio with AM function is still used now by many people, probably by more senior users who are used to listen to the traditional radio sets in daily life.In fact home radio receivers portable or dest one had long been used as a main device for people to get news around the world before the Television was invented.As for radio broadcasting, it took place in 1915, when human speech was first transmitted across the continent between New York City and San Francisco and across the Atlantic Ocean between Naval radio station NAA at Arlington, Virginia and the Eiffel tower in Paris. We need to recall that we can get gigantic measure of data however we need to utilize our cerebrum to anaalise those data. Since data we go anyplace like online or radio or etc, it doesnt mean they are genuine or helpful. In the event that we are utilized with one gadget for quite a while we may lose one capacity around there. Case in point when individuals use GPS to drive, without GPS, they may not know to discover the home. Perhaps we can not stop the new innovations to enter our life, we can not stop ourselves to purchase new versatile, new I-pad, however the paramount thing is that how we utilize them as a part of right way in light of the fact that they have effectively changed the way we used to get data. Marketing Marketing is changed in past years. So many changes made. Main purpose of marketing is attract and retain customer valuable content with the intention of changing or enhancing consumer behavior. In past year, Marketing is done throw paper advertisement, by poster, audio concept etc. Marketing is concern with the business strategy. In past hundred years many principles had change in marketing strategy. In past year, Marketing is done throw paper advertisement, by poster, audio concept etc. In this present year marketing done throw Facebook, YouTube, Twitter type social media where people can interest in product, so Marketing is done very easily. According to Tech Target, more than 64% of car buyers use the Internet to research car models, features, and prices. Even more, 68% of new car buyers attest to visiting an average of seven different sites, such as Kelly Blue Book, Autobytel, and Edmunds. In past year, marketing done throw paper. All paper wrote by himself by people and give other for marketing. They can write document by hand writing. There are time consuming and waste of paper. In this generation that work done by printing machine. All document write in computer and you can copies easily available. As long as people still read newspapers and magazines, text marketing will remain important. Early mail frameworks were utilized principally for sending individual letters and interchanges between organizations, however dashing advertisers soon found that mail could be an extraordinary approach to market organization and its products. while numerous individuals whine uproariously about garbage mail, there are still ways to utilize mail promoting viably, and it can be an extraordinary approach to assemble a client base when beginning a business. Mail promoting is not the least expensive advertising system accessible, however it can be massively viable if utilized accuratel y. In present year marketing also done throw audio and video visual. You can record your advertisement and advertisement on radio. You can make video transfer throw internet or view video advertisement on film interval, on online web advertisement or on television. You can easily marketing your product. The fame and regulation of radio gave advertisers a fresh out of the box better approach to connect with potential clients. Since it was difficult to charge for access to a radio station, early stations depended on promoting, and radio promotions are still the essential means by which radio stations produce income. Indeed online radio stations still depend on sound recordings for promoting. TV promoting came a bit later, however it stays as prominent as ever, and all promotion backed feature wholesalers will proceed to use feature promoting for future. Early web browsers began allowing images, website operators began running advertisements. These advertise were typically banner ads, and operators would charge for each ad shown. Later, only ads that users clicked resulting in charges. Today, many ads are based on text, and advertisers only pay when users click on them. On popular platforms, advertisers compete based on price for better advertise placement. Like facebook and other social networking website advertisement Technology has long changed how we live our lives, but some of us fail to realize how profound the changes it brings are. When it comes to advertising, businesses can no longer create a sign and hope that others will spread the news. Fortunately, there are a number of effective an d affordable options for businesses of all sizes, and those who take advantage of what advertising can do using modern technology stand to make tremendous strides. Communication Communication is process of interaction or interchange word between people. Changing on technology effect the communication technology. Many device find for the communication as example like phone, messages service, internet call, new application for communication all that. Many year ago people communicate with the symbol. People can pass the message by symbol. Communication done also by writing. Few year ago people can write letter and post. And other people receive post read and get answer. That waste the time. Phone is the most important innovation by graham bell that change the communication and information exchange way. So many innovation can made in communication. In past people can communicate just with talking and writing paper and this present time people can get information throw telephone. Just call and ask and get information. In communication that has two main part. Telecommunication Videocommunication Telecommunication means communication at distance with technology. In this present time so many changes has done. Many invention done. Like phone, calling, messeging Audio-video transfer. Tele-communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, and loud whistle. Telecommunication can increase the ability to access throw film and music. Telecommunication and videocommunication play most important role in social activities. In 1920-1930 social dimensions of the device became a prominent theme in telephone advertisements. Using Television people can seen films or entertain at home. They cannot travel for video entertainment. With Radio and internet people can listen music at the home. At the past that all thing not available. Now in this generation wireless telecommunication is available that people can communicate with anyone at any place. Internet, radio, television, telephone all the major components of telecommunication. Video-communication is the conduct of a video conferencs by a set of telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to communicate by simultaneous two-way video and audio transmissions . In past there are no any video chatting is available. Now in a days Skype, viber so many application that use for video communication. References

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The School Voucher Debate :: essays papers

The School Voucher Debate THE SCHOOL VOUCHER DEBATE In reading these articles, I did not understand the religious school involvement and school vouchers. There was one statement in the first article Court Discusses Vouchers, that stated that in Cleveland use school vouchers and that they can be used at fifty-one other schools, but there are nine schools that they cannot use the vouchers at, and they are all Catholic schools. To me this seems to be a religious prejudice going on in that area against the Catholic religion. I understand the purpose for vouchers and what would be involved. The money that is used to give out school vouchers comes from the public system of resources. I can see why people would be against vouchers. They worry that it will drain the resources for other public things. At the same time though, in the second article America’s boldest governor, it had stated that if the vouchers were properly designed, they would only drain the public resources at the same rate as a resource-consuming pupils. Therefore, students that are not doing well, drain more funds from the public system than other students that are doing good in school, and if vouchers are able to give those students who have been doing badly is school improve with time, the money used from the public system will balance out. Obviously, the students and parents of the lower class would benefit from vouchers. The school and public system do not benefit from vouchers. Schools for the reason that some schools will have to improve their school overall, or they will lose students to better equipped schools, since students of any background will be able to attend any school they like. I do feel that vouchers would lead to better curriculum among several schools, which would provide for educational excellence. The schools would be thriving to keep the number of students attending the school up. They would have to adjust to better themselves if vouchers were made available. Equity within schools would be achieved if vouchers were made available to students of all races, class, and status. Vouchers would allow students of several different cultural backgrounds and social class to attain and school they wish.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Vietnam War Short Stories Essay -- Literary Analysis

The Vietnam War was the first war in history to be broadcast on national television. Due to the increasing popularity of television ownership and the introduction of the nightly news programs such as CBS and NBC, the horrors of war found a place in living rooms across the country. Between 1965 and 1975, nine million people served in the Vietnam War, and of those nine million, 58,156 were killed or declared missing in action ("Vietnam War Statistics."). Of the 58,156 soldiers killed, 11,465 of them were under the age of twenty ("Statistics about the Vietnam War"). After surviving the war, Tim O’Brien and Susan O’Neill wrote short stories and novels including Tim O’Brien’s â€Å"The Things They Carried†, and Susan O’Neill’s â€Å"The Boy from Montana†. By putting audiences in the shoes of the grunts led by Lieutenant Jimmy Cross and the surgical gloves of Agnes Reedy, Tim O’Brien and Susan O’Neill immortalized the st ruggles experienced by their compatriots and themselves. â€Å"The things they carried† is a short story about Lieutenant Jimmy Cross leading his men through Vietnam. O’Brien describes all of the things carried by the men as a way to symbolize all of the burdens they had. One thing that Lieutenant Jimmy Cross carries is a pack of letters from Martha, a girl he was in love with (O’Brien). One night Ted Lavender, one of the men in Lieutenant Cross’s squad, left to use the bathroom and on his return, is shot and killed (O'Brien).This causes Cross to realize that his main priority is to lead his men, not swoon over a woman (O'Brien). â€Å"The Boy from Montana† is a short story about Agnes Reedy’s account of watching a boy die in the field hospital she worked at in Vietnam. She says that she thought that all death was the same, but one day s... ...Short Stories of Vietnam. New York: Ballantine, 2001. 3-11. Print. Roush, Gary. "Statistics about the Vietnam War." Vietnam Helicopter Flight Crew Network (VHFCN). 2 June 2008. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. . Taormina, Agatha. "Author Profile: Tim O'Brien." Northern Virginia Community College., 10 Mar. 2011. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. . "Tim O’Brien Interview: The Things He Carried." Interview by David L. Edelman. Wordpress, 19 Oct. 1994. Web. 17 Mar. 2012. . "Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang." VIETNAM VETERANS HOME PAGE. 22 Mar. 2000. Web. 15 Mar. 2012. . "Vietnam War Statistics." The Mobile Riverine Force Association. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Now Is The Time To Be Computer Literate Essay -- essays research paper

Now Is The Time To Be Computer Literate Now is the time to become computer literate. Now is the time to become familiar and comfortable with the computer because in the future we will become virtually a paperless society and many daily activities will be linked to the computer.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Mail delivery to the home and business will be almost entirely phased out and e-mail will replace it. Bills will come via the computer and paid the same way. Pay checks will be electronically deposited to your bank account. On special occasions such as birthdays, greeting cards will be sent from your computer to your loved ones computer.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Shopping malls will become cyber malls and we will do our shopping via the computer. You will be able to view on your monitor how you would look in a certain outfit you are considering to buy. Imagine traveling over the entire mall in a comfortable in front of your computer. Push a button and the entire stock of a store will be at your finger tips. When you do go to a store to shop you will not use money. You will use either a credit card or debit card which will automatically deduct the amount if you purchase from your bank account.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Our homes will be run by computers. Computers will adjust the temperature. Home appliances will be linked to the computer. Imagine driving home from work and calling your computer and having it start dinner for you. Have it adjust the temperat... Now Is The Time To Be Computer Literate Essay -- essays research paper Now Is The Time To Be Computer Literate Now is the time to become computer literate. Now is the time to become familiar and comfortable with the computer because in the future we will become virtually a paperless society and many daily activities will be linked to the computer.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Mail delivery to the home and business will be almost entirely phased out and e-mail will replace it. Bills will come via the computer and paid the same way. Pay checks will be electronically deposited to your bank account. On special occasions such as birthdays, greeting cards will be sent from your computer to your loved ones computer.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Shopping malls will become cyber malls and we will do our shopping via the computer. You will be able to view on your monitor how you would look in a certain outfit you are considering to buy. Imagine traveling over the entire mall in a comfortable in front of your computer. Push a button and the entire stock of a store will be at your finger tips. When you do go to a store to shop you will not use money. You will use either a credit card or debit card which will automatically deduct the amount if you purchase from your bank account.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Our homes will be run by computers. Computers will adjust the temperature. Home appliances will be linked to the computer. Imagine driving home from work and calling your computer and having it start dinner for you. Have it adjust the temperat...

Saturday, August 17, 2019

The Secret of Ella and Micha Chapter 3

Ella â€Å"I take it that's Micha?† Lila wanders around my kitchen as she tightens a loose ribbon on the waist of her floral dress. â€Å"He's even cuter than in the picture.† â€Å"Yep, that would be Micha.† I kick a box across the stained linoleum floor and flip the light on. It looks the same; seventies themed colors, wicker chairs around the glass table, and yellow and brown countertops. â€Å"So just your dad lives here?† Lila circles the small kitchen and her gaze lingers on the countertop next to the kitchen sink where empty bottles are lining the wall. â€Å"Yeah. My older brother moved out as soon as he graduated.† I adjust the handle of my bag and head for the stairway. The house smells like rotten food and smoke. In the living room, the aged plaid sofa is vacant, and the ash tray on the coffee table is spilling over with cigarette butts. The television is on so I shut it off. â€Å"So where's your dad?† Lila wonders as we climb up the stairs. â€Å"I'm not sure,† I avoid the truth, because he's probably at the bar. â€Å"Okay, where's your mom?† she probes. â€Å"You never told me where she lives.† Lila doesn't know much about me and it's how I want it. Leaving her in the dark, about my mom, my brother – everyone in this aspect of my life – has allowed me to transform into someone who doesn't have to deal with my problems. â€Å"My dad works nights,† I make up a story. â€Å"And my mom moved out quite a while ago. She lives up on Cherry hill.† She leans forward to study a portrait of my mother displayed on the wall; the same auburn hair, pale skin, and green eyes as me. Her smile was just as fake as mine, too. â€Å"Is this your mom?† She asks and I nod. â€Å"She looks just like you.† My chest tightens and I quickly trot to the top of the stairway. At the end of the hall, the bathroom door is wide open. The corner of the porcelain tub and the stain on the tile floor is in my line of vision. My heart constricts tighter as the memories flood me. I'm suffocating with panic. â€Å"Baby girl,† she said. â€Å"I'm going to go take a nap, just for a little while. I'll be back in just a bit.† My knees tremble as I shut the door. My chest opens up and oxygen flows through my lungs again. â€Å"So where does your brother live?† Lila peers inside my brother's room full of drums, guitar picks, CDs, and records. There's a bunch of band posters taped to the wall and a guitar up on a mount. â€Å"I think in Chicago.† â€Å"You think?† I shrug. â€Å"We don't have the best relationship. She nods, like she understands. â€Å"So is he in a band?† â€Å"I'm not sure if he's still in one now. I'm guessing since his stuff's here, probably not,† I say. â€Å"He only played because he was friends with Micha and he's in a band. Or was. I have no idea what he does anymore.† â€Å"Ella, did you lose touch with everyone in your life?† Lila accuses, tucking the pillow under her arm. Her scrutiny makes me uncomfortable. Avoiding confrontation, I turn on my bedroom light and shudder at the sight. It's like a museum of my past. Sheets of my artwork are tacked to the walls, trimmed with a black skeleton border Micha put up when we were twelve to make my room more â€Å"manly.† A collection of guitar picks line the far dresser and there is a pile of my boots in the corner. My bed is made with the same purple comforter and there's a plate with a half-eaten cookie on it, which is growing mold. I toss the cookie into the trash. Hasn't my dad been in here since I left? Lila picks up a guitar and plops down on the bed. â€Å"I didn't know you played.† She positions the guitar on her lap and strums the strings. â€Å"I always wanted to learn how to play, but my mom would never let me take lessons. You should teach me.† â€Å"I don't play.† I drop my bag on the floor. â€Å"That's Micha's guitar. His initials are on the back.† She turns it over and looks at the initials. â€Å"So the hot guy from next door is also a musician. God, I'm about to swoon.† â€Å"No swooning over anyone in this neighborhood,† I advise. â€Å"And since when are you into musicians? I have never, until today, heard you say anything about liking guys who can play the guitar.† â€Å"Since they look like him.† She points over her shoulder toward Micha's house, which is visible through the window of my room. â€Å"That boy is dripping with sexiness.† Jealousy growls in my chest and I mentally whisper for it to shut up. I pick up a photo of my mom and me at the zoo when I was six. We're happy, smiling, and the sun is bright against our squinting eyes. It rips at my heart and I let the photo fall back onto the desk. â€Å"There's a trundle under the bed that you can sleep on if you want.† â€Å"Sounds good.† She slides the guitar off her lap and goes over to the window, drawing the curtain back. â€Å"Maybe we should go to the party. It looks kind of fun.† I gather my hair away from my eyes before dragging the trundle out from under the bed. â€Å"No offense, Lila, but I don't think you can handle one of Micha's parties. Things can get a little bit crazy.† She narrows her eyes at me, insulted. â€Å"I can handle parties. It's you that never wanted to go to any of them. And the one's that I did talk you into going to, you just stood in the corner, drinking water and sulking.† I flop down on the bed with my arms and legs slack over the edges. â€Å"That party is nothing like a college frat party. They're the kind of parties you wake up from the next day on a park bench with no shoes on and a tattoo on your back, with no recollection of what happened the night before.† â€Å"Oh my God, is that how you got that tattoo on your back – the one you refuse to tell me what it means.† She lies on the bed next to me and we stare at the Chevelle poster on my ceiling. â€Å"It means infinite.† I tug the hem of my tank top down, hiding the tattoo on my lower back, and drape my arm over my forehead. â€Å"And I don't refuse to talk about it. I just can't remember how I got it.† She gives me a sad, puppy dog face and bats her eyelashes. â€Å"Pretty please, with a cherry on top. This might be my only chance to go to a party like this. The ones at my old neighborhood consist of limos, fancy dresses and tuxes, and a lot of champagne.† When I don't respond, she adds, â€Å"You owe me.† â€Å"How do you figure?† â€Å"For giving you a ride here.† â€Å"Please don't make me go down there,† I plead, clasping my hands together. â€Å"Please.† She rolls onto her stomach and props up on her elbows. â€Å"He's an old boyfriend, isn't he? You were lying. I knew it. No one can draw a picture like that of someone they've never loved.† â€Å"Micha and I have never dated.† I insist with a heavy sigh. â€Å"If you really want to go see what these parties are all about, I'll take you down there, but I'm not hanging around for more than five minutes.† I give in because deep down I'm curious to check up on the world I left behind. She claps her hands animatedly and squeals, looking out the window one last time. â€Å"Holy crap. Someone's standing on the roof.† They say curiosity killed the cat. â€Å"Come on, party girl. Let's get this over with.† *** About fifteen years ago, this town used to be a decent place to live. Then the factory that supplied jobs to almost the entire town shut down. People were laid off and slowly it began to dwindle into the bottomless pit that it is now. The houses across the street are painted in graffiti and I'm pretty sure my next door neighbor makes moonshine in his garage, or at least he did before I left. Inside Micha's house, there are people loitering in the entryway. I push my way through them and into the kitchen, which is crammed with even more people. On the table is a kegger and enough bottles of alcohol to open a liquor store. The atmosphere is overflowing with the scent of sweat and there are a few girls dancing on the kitchen counters. People are making out in the corners of the living room where the sofas are shoved to the side, so the band can flare on their instruments, screaming lyrics of pain and misunderstanding at the top of their lungs. I'm surprised Micha isn't up there playing. â€Å"Holy crap. This is†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Lila's blue eyes are round as she gawks at the people jumping up and down in the living room, shaking their bodies and thrashing their heads. â€Å"Like a mosh pit,† I finish for her, shoving a short girl with bleached hair out of my way. â€Å"Hey,† the girl whines as her drink spills down the front of her leather dress. â€Å"You did that on purpose.† For a split second, I forget who I am and turn around to blast her with a death glare. But then I remember that I'm the calm and rational Ella; one that doesn't get into fights and beat other girls up. â€Å"What, preppy girl?† She pats her chest, ready to throw down. â€Å"You think you scare me.† Lila bites her thumbnail. â€Å"We're sorry. She didn't mean to.† Chants fill the living room and the chaos is giving me a headache. â€Å"Sorry,† I strain an apology and squeeze between her and the wall. She snickers at me and her friends join in with her laughter as they sashay to the back door. It takes everything I have not to turn around and tackle her to the floor. Lila makes a beeline for the bar set up on the counter, dumps a drop of vodka into a cup, and mixes it with a splash of orange juice. â€Å"Okay, that was intense. I thought she was going to kick your ass.† â€Å"Welcome to Star Grove.† I shout over the music. â€Å"The Land of the Intense and Poverty-stricken, where the adolescents roam free without sober parental supervision and try to start fights wherever they can.† She laughs, takes a gulp of her drink, and her face pinches at the bitterness. â€Å"Try – † She starts, then coughs. She pounds her hand against her chest. â€Å"Are you going to make it?† I ask. Lila has never been a big drinker. She nods and clears her throat. â€Å"I was going to say try growing up where you have to get permission to wear a certain style of shoes.† I give her a mystified look and she adds, â€Å"If it wasn't up to my mother's stylish fashion standards I wasn't allowed to wear it.† I edge out of the way of a guy with blotchy skin and a beanie covering his head, who doesn't seem to mind that he knocks his shoulder into mine. â€Å"I'm sure it wasn't that bad growing up where you did. I mean, at least there was some control.† â€Å"Yeah, there was,† she says uneasily and her eyes quickly scan the room. â€Å"I can't believe there's a live band. It's like being at an outside concert.† â€Å"What? They don't have live bands in California?† I joke with a small smile as I pour myself a cup of water. â€Å"One's that take place outside?† She stirs her drink with a straw. â€Å"Not these kinds of bands. Think much more mellow, with a stage and seats to watch.† â€Å"Sounds like fun to me.† I oblige a smile and glance at my watch. â€Å"Are you about ready to go?† â€Å"Are you joking?† Sucking the drink out of the straw, she hops on the counter and crosses her legs. â€Å"We just got here. Why would we want to go? In fact, we should go dance.† My eyes find the living room, where a guy with dreads smashes his head against the glass plate of a cabinet in the corner and everyone cheers. â€Å"You can if you want, but I'm good.† I gulp my water. â€Å"I like all my bones intact.† Leaning against the counter, I scan through the crowd, curious to see where Micha is. I don't know why I'm so curious, but I am. Occasionally he would bail on his own parties, either to hook up or just get some quiet. I found him a couple of times hiding out on a lawn chair. Each time, he would pull me onto his lap and we would stare up at the night sky, talking about an unreachable future. I spot him in the corner, sitting on the couch with his arm draped around some blonde girl with boobs popping out of her dress. His hair hangs in his eyes and he's nibbling at his lip ring, driving the girl crazy I'm sure. They're just talking, but the girl keeps flipping her hair off her shoulder and her hand is on his chest. It's hard to tell if Micha's enjoying her company or not. He was always difficult to read when it came to girls because he never really looked interested in any of them, but sometimes he would end up with them for the night. I asked him about it once and he said it was all fun, but that he was just killing time until I gave into my inner desire to be with him. I tackled him to the ground for it and it made him laugh. â€Å"Why do you have that look on your face? Like you're undressing someone with your eyes?† Lila asks, following my gaze. â€Å"Oh, is that – â€Å" My eyes dart from Micha. â€Å"I wasn't looking at anyone, just the madness in the living room.† â€Å"Yeah, right,† she says, elevating her eyebrows. â€Å"You totally want him. I can see it on your face.† â€Å"Well, I'll be damned if it isn't the infamous Ella May!† Ethan Gregory grins from the other side of the counter, just behind Lila. He stumbles around the corner, nearly clipping his head on the low ceiling. Before I can respond, he has me trapped in an awkward hug with his long arms that are tracked with tattoos. His grey shirt smells like an ash tray and his breath like beer. He pulls back, ruffling his black hair with his fingers. â€Å"Does Micha know you're here in his house?† I lie breezily, very aware of where Micha is and what he's doing. â€Å"I'm pretty sure he saw me walk in.† â€Å"I doubt that. He's been looking for you for the past eight months.† He glances over his shoulder and nods at Lila, then tips in toward me. â€Å"You know he's been a wreck ever since you took off. You really fucked up his head, Ella.† â€Å"That's such a lie,† I tell him. Ethan and I have never really gotten along very well, which is why the hug confused me so much. We both had the same blunt attitude and butted heads a lot. The only reason we were friends at all was because of Micha. Although, there was one time we did bond for a split second, but we never talk about it. â€Å"Micha doesn't fall apart over anyone. I know him better than that.† His face is flushed and his brown eyes are bloodshot. â€Å"I guess you don't know him as well as you think then, because he's been a wreck. In fact, all he's done for the last few months is search for you.† â€Å"Which explains the party,† I retort. â€Å"I'm guessing that classifies as that.† â€Å"First one in five months,† he says. â€Å"And I think he only did it because he found out where you were and needed a distraction.† â€Å"I know him better than you do, Ethan, and he doesn't fall apart over girls,† I say, but cringe at the fact that I might not know him anymore. A lot can happen in eight months. â€Å"Hey, Lila, we should go. It's getting late.† She glances at her diamond encrusted Rolex and rolls her eyes. â€Å"It's like nine thirty.† â€Å"You're leaving already?† He waves his hand in the air. â€Å"That's nonsense talk right there. You haven't even seen Micha yet and he's gonna be super pissed if he misses seeing you, especially since you ran away from him in the driveway.† â€Å"Actually, I think we're going to hang out for a little while longer,† Lila presses with unrelenting eyes. She mouths, he's hot. Then she fastens her hands together. Please, Ella. Pretty please. Ethan isn't Lila's type. He's got baggage almost as heavy as mine. I start to protest when Micha's deep voice floats over my shoulder and tickles my skin like feathers. Without being able to help it, I let out a soft moan. â€Å"Yeah, pretty girl, stay a little longer.† He's so close that the heat of his body kisses my skin and my insides tremor. His fingers comb through my hair as he whispers, â€Å"You smell so good. God I've missed your smell.† â€Å"I have to get up really early in the morning.† I clear my throat and Lila's eyebrows furrow. â€Å"I need to go home and get some sleep.† He places his hand on the counter, so the crook of his arm is touching my hip. â€Å"You can keep trying to avoid me,† he breathes in my ear, taking a nip at my earlobe. â€Å"But sooner or later you're going to have to talk to me.† His breath reeks of beer and his clothes of smoke. Refusing to crack at the sound of his sexy voice, I turn and face him. â€Å"I don't have time to get drunk and act like a moron.† He's even more gorgeous under the light and more irresistible, even though his eyes are glossed over. â€Å"It's your fault I'm drunk – you drive me crazy.† He descends his voice to a soft purr, the same voice he's used on me many times to get what he wants – the voice that makes me feel alive inside. â€Å"Baby, come on. Please. We need to talk.† He leans in to kiss me. The suddenness throws me off balance and I trip over my own feet. â€Å"Micha, stop it.† I gently push him back and he staggers into the edge of the counter. â€Å"You're drunk. And I'm going home.† â€Å"She's acting weird†¦ like she's way too calm,† Ethan remarks, with a wave of his finger. â€Å"And she's dressed funny, like that girl we use to go to school with. What's her name?† He snaps his fingers. â€Å"Stacy†¦. Stacy†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Harris,† I say exhausted. â€Å"And I look like a girl that went away to college and grew up.† Lila slants forward. â€Å"Ella's been this way since I've known her, but I'm really curious what she used to look like with the way everyone keeps talking about her because I can't picture her any other way besides this.† Micha and Ethan trade drunken looks and then howl with laughter. The room quiets down a little as people glance in our direction. â€Å"What's so funny?† Lila frowns and looks to me for help. â€Å"I'm so lost.† â€Å"Nothing. They just think they're funny.† I dodge around Micha, but he seizes my elbow and hauls me back against his chest. â€Å"Hey relax, baby.† He kisses my forehead and gives me his innocent face. â€Å"Please don't go. I just got you back.† Before I took off, the boundaries of our friendship were starting to blur. I thought time would fix this, but it seems like we're back to where we started. As much as I would love to melt into him, it just can't happen. I can't open up like that and lose control. I need control. â€Å"No one's got me back. I'm just here for summer break and only because I didn't have money to rent an apartment,† I say and his expression falls. â€Å"The Ella you knew is gone. She died on that bridge eight months ago.† He blinks, as shocked as I am. His lips part then he clasps them shut, struck speechless. â€Å"I didn't mean that,† I say quickly. â€Å"I'm sorry, Micha. I just can't deal with this.† â€Å"Don't be sorry for being real,† he says, rubbing his forehead with the back of his hand. I force the lump in my throat down. â€Å"I'm sorry,† I say again, and then weave through the crowd and out the back door, inhaling the fresh air. â€Å"What's your problem?† Lila asks as she catches up with me at the edge of my driveway. She squashes her plastic cup and tosses it into the trash can on the back porch. â€Å"I'm so confused. What just happened?† â€Å"I needed to get out of there before I lost it.† I don't slow down until I'm in my room where I close the door and shut the window, locking away the world. I sigh back against the wall, breathing in the quiet. Lila watches me with inquisitiveness as she pulls her hair back into a bun and puts some lip gloss on. â€Å"Ethan and Micha act like you used to be someone else. Like this isn't the real you. Want to explain?† â€Å"Not really.† I push away from the door and collect some pajamas from the duffel bag. â€Å"I'm going to go take a shower. Do you need anything from downstairs?† â€Å"Yeah, for you to tell me why those guys have you so frazzled.† She unclips her watch and tosses it into her purse that's on the bed. â€Å"I've never seen you so worked up like that. You basically had an orgasm when you first saw him.† â€Å"I did not,† I say, embarrassed and annoyed. â€Å"And you haven't seen me that worked up because I'm not that person anymore.† â€Å"Except for when you're around him,† she insinuates. â€Å"When you were talking to him, there was something in your eyes I've never seen before. You were always so closed off to all the guys at parties and in school. Honestly, I thought you were a virgin. But the way you and Micha were looking at each other – you've had sex with him, right?† Pressing my lips together, I tuck my pajamas under my arm, and shake my head. â€Å"No, Micha and I've never slept together, just like we've never dated. But we've been friends since we were kids.† She sits down on the bed and unhooks her sandal. â€Å"But you've had sex before?† I squirm in my skin. â€Å"I'm going to go get ready for bed.† â€Å"Whoa, wait a second.† She leaps off the bed wearing one shoe and jumps in front of the door with her hands spread out to the side. â€Å"Are you saying that you've never had sex? Ever.† I struggle for words she'll understand. â€Å"It's not like I haven't because I don't believe in premarital sex or anything. I just†¦ Look there's a lot you don't know about me and sometimes I have a hard time getting close to people.† She's not surprised. â€Å"Well, obviously. That's totally been a given from day one.† â€Å"What do you mean?† I question. â€Å"I've never told anyone that before.† Not even Micha. â€Å"It means sometimes I can see right through you.† She sighs and counts down on her fingers. â€Å"I've been your roommate for eight months and all I know about you is you're focused on school, you hate to drink, hate being around large crowds, and have never went on a date. I barely know you and being here, I'm starting to wonder if I know you at all.† She knows the Ella I want her to know. â€Å"Can you let me by? I'm really tired.† She gives me a disbelieving look, but doesn't press. She steps aside and lets me by. Relief washes over me because I don't want to get into it with her. Not tonight. Not ever. I never want to get into the night that changed my life. I buried my reckless identity, and I won't dig it up again.