Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Db3 managing high performance Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Db3 managing high performance - Research Paper Example Managers must correct any mistakes made or solve disagreements dutifully to avoid creating disharmony. Japanese remove their shoes whenever they enter a house with a tatami reed mat laid on the wall. Westerners visiting officers or restaurants with tatami should be aware of this custom and remove their shoes before entering these offices. Mc Farlin & Sweeney (2014) explain that Japanese managers allocates more time and concerted efforts to ensure that work groups operate efficiently. Japanese managers encourage equal participation with harmonious working conditions. Japanese managers recognize and award exemplary group performance as opposed to individual performance. This is as opposed to among US companies that emphasize on individual achievement. American corporations discourage extreme group harmony. They argue that extreme group harmony causes groupthink, which may lead to ineffective decision making. Another Japanese social custom pertains the giving or receiving of business cards. The Japanese receive and give business cards in a courteous manner. They receive business cards with both hands and read them before keeping them. Giving cards with one hand is a sign of disrespect. The Japanese approach of allowing a free organizational structure is likely to improve employee satisfaction (Primecz, Romani & Sackmann, 2011). The US companies of fostering both individual and teamwork performance is likely to enhance company performance by setting both individual and team

Monday, October 28, 2019

Research Design in Geography

Research Design in Geography With the ever-growing expansion of global knowledge geographers like many other scientists both human and physical have begin to face an â€Å"information explosion† (Ebdon, 1985). The readily available written information and numerical data today is increasing at an accelerating rate. This has lead to the necessity for summaries of these large data sets showing the concise measurements of their attributes. Human and physical geography can be seen as two different disciplines one been primarily focussed on qualitative data and one quantitative data respectively; both been equally reliant and interested within secondary data sources. The contention as to why this is the case is outlined below. It can be noted that secondary data within the research discipline may be defined as â€Å"data which has not been collected with the specific research question in mind† (Emanuel and Egenvall, 2014). It can be seen as data which has previously been collected by somebody else however is effortlessly available; Secondary data was once a branch of primary data (Vartanian, 2010). It is seen as common source for academic disciplines to use within research projects either been obtained from quantitative or qualitative sources. Secondary data as an aspect of scientific disciplines has come about due to the global widespread transition from paper to digital (Gomez and Jones, 2010). Nowadays datasets can be created, analysed and distributed worldwide digitally. Digital secondary data is often structured within databases and organised as tables which can be analysed. An example of this is weather records available online within the NOAA – National Climatic Data Centre (NCDC) whereby annual to daily summaries are available as structured datasets. This climatic data online provides free accessible archives of global historical weather and climatic data addressing all variables. Compared to many other scientific disciplines geographers use a great deal of secondary data because of the numerous types of data available within geographic research (Montello and Sutton, 2006). Maps as a branch of secondary data support the basis of physical geographer’s research; there involvement in the environmental features, factors and processes which coalesce together to make a place unique. With the earth’s features and landscapes ever-changing in a spatial context maps allow geographer’s to study and monitor landscape change over time (Gabler et al, 2008). Climatologists are interested in weather maps as they show where and how weather elements change daily, over the seasons and yearly. This allows for predictions and management in areas which may be susceptible to high levels of rainfall, such as south West England; whereas Geomorphologists look at the study of the topography within a given area. Using maps physical geographers apply their knowledge they discover from the study of the earth; the observation of phenomena and compilation of data to seek solutions to the global issues to which they are interested in. Geographic Maps are readily av ailable at (Digi-map) ordinance survey map data on Edina Maps; an example of a historic map can be found at Physical geographers and other scientists work to describe and analyse the often complex features of planet earth and its environments by composing representations of the real world; models. A model is a simplified version of a more complex reality that allows for prediction; each model is designed with a specific purpose in mind. This is evident in Pacione (2001) with the idea of the concentric zone model and the multiple nuclei model in order to explain the spatial structure of the urban economy. A map is a branch of model as it shows a representation providing useful information required to meet specific needs. Maps are seen as a pictorial model (Gabler et al, 2008) and are used because they are efficient in conveying a great amount of spatial information that is easily recognisable. Likewise maps not only show spatial information and data but they also show essential information about the map itself which is interesting to geographers; the legend, scale and direction. A more recent approach since the 1990’s is the use of geographic information systems and aerial remote sensing as a branch of mapping. Initially geographers used maps achieved by producing a transparent overlay for each data set at a common scale, aligning overlays so that their co-ordinates corresponded and then drawing a new overlay showing for instance how rock types and soils interrelate (Freeman et al, 1993). However the more data there is to analyse the more complex the map becomes as a piece of secondary data. Therefore large complex data sets require the use of computer software designed to manipulate spatial data. This computer based technology assists the large geographic data derived from numerous digital map layers (composed of thematic maps) enabling geographers to address global problems that require large amounts of spatial data from a variety of sources (Gabler et al, 2008). Figure 1shows the clear procedure in order to use GIS to create secondary data. As Moran (1975) states though it is not just geography using such tool, statistical analysis with maps is of course important in all other sciences such as geology, epidemiology and geophysics. An example of this is the work been done on the small scale geographical distribution of cases of tuberculosis, cancer and leukaemia (Moran, 1975). This is done to see if there is evidence of clustering; which may give light on the causation of such diseases. Within the geographic discipline the common term secondary data refers to the relatively large databases those individual researchers would not be able to produce; for example census data, newspaper archives, satellite imagery or resource inventories. Secondary data is an important aspect in all geographic literature because it can be analysed in order demonstrate a depth of relationship between variables to show an underlying trend. Geographers use secondary data because it provides an alternative to the collection of primary data which in turn often gives the researcher access to more information than would be available (Vartanian, 2010). Figure 2 shows just a sample of large datasets available on Income Inequality as a branch of human geography. Archives are seen as another branch of secondary data whereby the use of existing records that others have collected primarily for non-research purposes such as financial reports, birth and death records, newspaper stories, diaries or letters. These could be seen as more beneficial to human geographers as they are qualitative data. A recent approach and use of secondary data is the use of personal solicited diaries as a qualitative method of research within social geography. In Meth (2003) diaries were used with women from South Africa who recorded their experiences of violence over a one month period. Within the article it shows that solicited diaries can contribute towards a feminist analysis of social processes similarly within human geography diaries can promote participation and engagement by respondents in the research process. This use of secondary data is also present in the recent study into the everyday geographies into the heterosexual love and home by Morrison (2012). Within this study solicited diaries are seen to provide participants with a sense of emotional reflection and they can allow researchers to access this knowledge which may not have been opened if another data collection method was used. However as Morrison (2012) states diaries offer â€Å"momentariness† research and cannot alwa ys be compared to everyday life. Compared to many other scientific disciplines, both human and physical geographers use a great deal of secondary data (Montello Sutton, 2006). Geographers can often be seen to study phenomena at large spatial and temporal scales where it can be seen as too difficult and upscale to collect data oneself. Likewise the idea that secondary data is not intended for ones research often inspires a geographers’ research area. As Montello Sutton (2006) found, much geographic research is that analysts study problems at the examination scale of such available dataset, which is often not the scale at which the phenomena operates. The primary reason for the use of secondary data is its availability; it is evident that there are thousands accessible in a myriad of places (Vartanian, 2010). This availability in such increasing amounts is due to the digitalization of many records. For human geographers the uttermost used source of secondary data is the population census (Flowerdew and Martin, 2013); which is produced in the UK every 10 years by the office of National Statistics (ONS). This in-depth data analysis provides demographic statistics but also details on education, transport, work and housing. Census data is available publicly online at no cost and is available globally; facilitating their use as an exploratory first step within a research project opposed to primary research within the same research area (Gomez and Jones, 2010). This approach is seen as more efficient in respect to time and cost in comparison to primary data collection. However it has become apparent that a large gap exists in the relati ve abilities of the rich and the poor countries to produce and control digital secondary datasets. However Gomez and Jones (2010) have seen the global south trying to narrow the digital divide by governmental projects in-order to create their own data collection. As geographers it is clear that the growing accessibility of digitalised data is related to the growth of geomatic technologies. Emanuelson and Egenvall (2014) address the issue of time and cost; it is apparent that secondary data is cheaper and more readily available than primary data. Due to this the ability to gain large samples of data is seen more apparent likewise the chance to limit selection bias due to been able to sample a large part of the population. Primary data can be affected by specific biases such as recall and non-response. Secondary data is less likely to be affected by these biases due to the data been collected for another research question in mind. Questions should still be considered in secondary data such as how representative is the data, reliability and completeness of data to ensure validity. The data should be validated in the same way (i.e. Identification of non normal observations and internal validity). Reliability and validity are important questions within research as this offers consistency of results under repeatability conditions and offers a â€Å"truth-value of researchâ €  (Montello and Sutton, 2013). The legitimacy of secondary data is carried by the organised order making it well suited for many types of quantitative or statistical analysis. Likewise secondary data is commonly produced by trained professionals who pre-test the questions and verify categories in order to produce standard and comparable information, both across time and space (Gomez, 2010). Most importantly the professional systems of collection assembly, storage and retrieval that constitute secondary data confer legitimacy that is widely recognised and works to empower such data and make it rhetorically convincing. Secondary data can arguably be involved within geography due to the â€Å"Quantitative Revolution†; a term used by Davies (1972) as an aspect of one of the four major turning points within modern geography. This revolution occurred during the 1950’s and 1960’s highlighting a method of change behind geographical research; a launch from geography been a regional finding based research to a spatial science (Davies, 1972). The idea of secondary data been incorporated into the discipline meant that there was a movement from descriptive to scientific. As Davies (1972) states there is a still a divide between human and physical geography as it can be seen that physical has developed this â€Å"quantitative revolution† further causing a general talk of human geography becoming its own independent subject. The revolution itself is the basis for geography using secondary data today due to its creation of dynamism, self-insurance and a reassertion of scientific princ iples (Newby, 1980). This introduction of â€Å"scientific thinking† (Davies, 1972) engaged the geographic discipline into the solution for spatial, social and environmental global problems. By turning an introspective subject into an actively concerned discipline interested in the relationship it has with alternative global topics. Throughout physical geography the growth in analysis has not only been linked to but also related to the change in content and focus of enquiry. An example of this is the growing use of systems and modelling approach in Geomorphology (Chorley, 1962) and the rapid expansion of technology allowing secondary data to be widely available. In human geography the beginning of quantitative techniques and the associated philosophical implications of a positivist approach led to change from 1965-75 (Gregory, 1983); arguably a decade later than physical geography. Urban geography experienced a drastic shift from an urban land use approach to quantitatively based studies of spatial urban and economic structures. This need for statistics within all aspects of geography was made clear by Wilson and Kirkby (1975) nevertheless some British Geographers are overlooking aspects which need real mathematical competence. It has become clear that secondary datasets have become an important role in economic research due to the expansion of availability of datasets. Within human geography and economics international agencies such as the World Bank and the United Nations (UN) since the 1990’s have expanded its data sets, as for years have published income distribution data in its annual world development report. Advancements within these data sets are enabling a greater scale and distribution (Atkinson and Brandolini, 2001). An example of this can be seen by the data sets constructed by Klaus Deininger and Lyn Squire (1996) and the world income inequality database (WIID). Alongside the expansion of research it can be noted that research has changed over time. This is displayed in the Social Service Review (SSR) during 1980 and 2007. In 1980 six main articles or notes used some form of secondary data either administrative or survey data whereas in 2007 it was twenty-two used articles published. Vartanian (2010 argues this is only a snapshot of a trend based on one elite social work journal; However secondary data is becoming increasingly important. Statistical data is an important aspect of geography as it offers credibility to an argument or advice. Moran (1975) claims that statistical geography bears the same relation to geography that econometrics do to economics. Statistics are present in all academic journals and are constantly been generated by governmental organisations in-order to generate spatial trends. Governmental run datasets such as national statistics online, the UK population census and GEsource, all offer data which can be found across most countries and can usually be disaggregated to quite small areas such as administrative and political divisions; which are popular amongst geographers (Flowerdew and Martin, 2013). Moran (1975) discovers that a great deal of statistical geography appears to be more descriptive than explanatory. The most common use of statistics in the UK by human geographers is the population census data. A geographic use of this is using census data to look at migration and morbidity in Bentham, G, (1988). Census data is an official complete collection of data from the population with details as to age, sex and occupation and renewed every 10 years. Bentham, G (1988) looks at the association between the geographical pattern of disease and possible casual factors; looking at the 1981 GB Census data. Self-reported morbidity statistics are used; displaying that the health status of migrants differs noticeably from that of non-migrants. Similarly Mesev, V (1998) uses census data within urban image classification. Mesev looks at a monitored classification strategy containing a group of techniques that allow the connecting of urban land cover from remotely sensed data with urban functional characteristics from the population census data. However statistical data should not bind us solely to secondary data; in addition there are administrative reports, business records, diaries, newspapers and maps. As with any form of methodology disadvantages are there; secondary data can be argued to have a lack of control (Vartanian, 2010). It can be said to have a lack of control over the framing and wording of survey items and that the questions important to your studied may not be included in such data. Likewise subtleties matter a great deal in research and secondary data can be argued to get broader and not answer the research question in the direct research title. Similarly Emanuelson and Egenvall (2014) consider that there is no control over the information what is included in datasets which have already been produced therefore impossible to validate. Moreover ecological fallacy and modifiable area unit problem can be an issue within secondary data; the assumption that all individuals in a group share the average characteri stics of that group and those trends within data are based upon existing boundaries that are unrelated to the phenomena in question. Secondary data will remain important to geographic research as a primary source of information to a growing number of data intensive applications. Using secondary data clearly gives the researchers important advantages such as data coverage, quality and costs as well as the ability to analyse phenomena that otherwise may be impossible such as analysis of populations at a global scale. It can be argued that â€Å"Data† refers to a body of information in numerical form therefore it can be argued that it is hard to categorise data as uniquely geographical except perhaps data which concerns the spatial characteristics of places and areas (Ebdon, 1985). GIS as a branch of mapping is seen as one of the basic uses of secondary data within physical geography due to its ability to provide an important route to enquiry enabling exploration and integration of geographical data (Freeman et al, 1993). Within the immediate future physical geographers have no sign of movement away from the statistical analysis and the importance of using secondary data and mathematical modelling is more likely to grow opposed to contract. Whereas within human geography the future is less clear; the positivist view point is being challenged leading to a number of coexisting approaches. Nonetheless according the Institute of British Geographers for the future â€Å"the numbers game is far from over† (Newby, 1980) and this analogy can be applied to many scientific disciplines.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Hitcher, Education For Leisure, My Last Duchess, and The Lab Essay

Hitcher, Education For Leisure, My Last Duchess, and The Lab "Hitcher" By Simon Armitage, "Education For Leisure" By Carol Anne Duffy, "My Last Duchess" and "The Lab" by Robert Browning are all poems that deal with violence or the prospect of violence. "Hitcher" is a poem about a man who is angry at being threatened with the sack, he picks up a hitch-hiker and kills him and then leaves him on the road side. The poetic voice seems to be psychotic and also talks about the attack in a casual manner. "Ed for Leisure" also deals with a bitter person who feels he has been let down by society. As he becomes increasingly demotivated, he gets more and more violent ending with leaving the house with a bread knife. Both poets aim to show us that people are unpredictable and innocent people often fall victim to anger that has gone too far. Both of the poems are arranged in stanzas, "Hitcher" contains some full and half rhyme to keep the poem moving but "Education for Leisure" is in free verse with short abrupt lines showing the characters irrational mind. Both authors ch...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Different businesses and their ownerships Essay

Introduction- The purpose of this report is to look at economic development matters and what encourages new businesses to locate to a new business park. I will be investigating two contrasting businesses that will create new jobs in the local economy. For the voluntary sector I have chosen Oxfam and for the private sector I have chosen Topshop. I have chosen Topshop and Oxfam as my two contrasting businesses. Topshop is a young girls and women’s clothes shop. This business is international and has stores all over the country. Topshop has 300 stores they are still growing and expanding. The owner of Topshop owns other retail shops like Miss Selfridge and Dorothy Perkins. Topshop is part of Arcadia, a public limited company is owned by shareholders, which may be members of the public. Their shares can be bought and sold on the stock exchange. Topshop is run by a board of directors. These people make the major decisions within the business. They have limited liability; this means if the business gets into debt and cannot pay it, the business will get sued. This is known as incorporation. The shareholders’ personal assets cannot be taken to pay the debt; they are then only liable for how much they have invested in the business. The purpose of Topshop is to sell range of clothes for the public to buy, also to make profit. Oxfam is an international charity that was founded in 1942 in England. This organisation provides help to poor countries and disaster affected areas. The purpose of this contrasting business is to help people rebuild lives working on long term projects with communities determined to help ensure they have a better future. Topshop have their own aims and objectives, their aims are: Profit and profit maximisation – they want to make as much profit as they can Survival- they as a business want to be able to survive within the clothes industry and not fail because other businesses similar to them are opening up. Growth- they also want to be able to grow and expand their business and set up more stores in different part of the world to maximise their profit. Their SMART objectives are: SMART stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, and Realistic, time Constrained. Their objectives are Specific because Topshop will only aim to focus on clothing and fashion accessories particularly directed at women. Measureable in this context will mean that Top shop’s market share can be easily assessed and get to know of their changing needs and wants. Achievable because their business strategies can be stretched to achieve the desired market share. Realistic would be whether they are actually achievable or not. Time constrained will mean they will achieve all the objectives by a certain time. Oxfam also have their own aims and objectives, their aims are: Oxfam’s aims are: To help people in poor countries and relieve poverty Help provide education for people who are in need of it They take donations like toys and clothes, and then they sell on for money and all the money goes to that charity. Raise money and encourage charitable giving. Oxfam’s objectives include To provide clean hospitals To be caring and welcoming to new people To be well organised Give the best possible treatment they can Give as much advice as they can Within Topshop there are a number of different stakeholders which influence the purpose of the business. The purpose of Topshop is to provide good products for customers and also to provide a good service. A stakeholder is anyone with an interest in a business. These can be individuals, groups or organisations and they are affected by the activity of the business. Topshop’s stakeholders: Customers- The businesses aims are set to please the customers and live up the customer expectations. The customers of Topshop expect high quality and value for money clothes and products. They also expect the latest fashion trends and to look good in them as they are paying so much. Topshop as a big clothing shop are aiming to make the working conditions better for the people that are producing their products so then the customers know the clothes have been made in good working conditions which is a benefit . If the customers at Topshop didn’t get what they wanted, they could go elsewhere. Therefore customers have an influence over how Topshop run their business. Employees- Topshop need employees to help the business to expand and open a range of stores. Employees can influence Topshop by contacting their trade unions if they’re not happy with their working conditions. Their point of view would be to make sure they have good rates of pay, good working conditions, contract of employment sick pay and holiday entitlements. Suppliers- For Topshop to make enough profit to keep the business running, they will need suppliers to be able to buy products and sell them to customers. Without suppliers the business wouldn’t survive. Owners- Owners are shareholders in the business, people that have invested in Topshop. If Topshop didn’t have shareholders then the business wouldn’t run as well. Trade unions- It’s an organisation which supports workers when they are in disputes with their employees over the rates of pay they are getting or working conditions they are in. If the manager of the business does not agree with the trade unions or employees then Topshop could lose staff over this. Local communities The community may shop in Topshop as it’s the closest store to them. This will influence Topshop by having local customers who may always have a quick look in their store when they have time. This will increase profit for  Topshop. Government- They make all the laws which Topshop have to stick to. This means if they don’t stick to these laws they could get fined and loses customers over. In conclusion, some stakeholders will have a much bigger influence compared to the others. For example staff could go elsewhere and find a new job and work there instead. Oxfam’s stakeholders Customers- Customers in Oxfam will buy products and the money made will go to the charity then gets passed on the people to provide them with foods, clothes etc. If Oxfam didn’t have customers then they wouldn’t be able to raise money and help people that are in need of education, clothes and food and water. Employees – Oxfam needs employees to help the commerce to expand its self and open more stores up around the world. Also they would need staff to help achieve their aims and objectives. The employees that work at Oxfam are volunteers and they don’t get paid. If they don’t have employees then the business wouldn’t be able to raise money for the charity. Suppliers- They have two types of suppliers, members of the general public who donate second hand goods. They influence Oxfam because if they didn’t donate to this organisation then Oxfam as a charity wouldn’t be able to stock their shops. The second types of suppliers have medical supplies which help people in third world countries. Owners- Oxfam is a charity and as such does not have owners but trustees who help to keep the organisation on track with its aims and purpose. Local communities- Local community donate and buy goods from the charity. They influence Oxfam because they buy goods of them and if they didn’t Oxfam wouldn’t be able to achieve their target of making money to give to that charity. Government – The government make laws and legislation which Oxfam must follow. They  influence them because Oxfam may have to change the way they work and how they run the business. In conclusion, the stakeholders of Oxfam have a big influence on the business and how they run the business. For example, employees have the biggest amount of influence because if the business doesn’t have enough staff they wouldn’t be able to expand the business and create more stores around the world to raise more money. Both organisations have a number of different stakeholders. Each of the stakeholders will have a level of influence on the businesses. Some stakeholders will have more influence than others. The stakeholders that I think would have the most influence in Topshop would be customers, employees, government and shareholders. Topshop’s main aim is to make a profit. Customers in Topshop want the latest fashionable clothes at reasonable prices. They also expect high quality products t hat last the season. If Topshop introduced clothes that did not meet their customers’ expectations then sales would decrease and Topshop would not be able to achieve their aims and objectives as they wouldn’t be making enough money to make a profit. Employees that work in Topshop have an influence on the businesses aims and objectives because if they didn’t have employees to work in the stores then they wouldn’t meet their aims and objectives as a business because people have any to buy the product off. Also employees are needed widely for expanding the business to different part of the world and opening more of the stores. The government also have a big influence on Topshop’s business aims and objectives as they make all the laws for not only that business but other businesses too and if the business doesn’t follow or stick to those rules then they will get fined and could have a bad reputation created which would have negative influences on them as current cust omers may be put off buying products from them and go to one of their competitors close by like New Look or River Island. Shareholders are the last of the four stakeholders I think have a big influence on Topshop’s aims and objectives. They are important because the store wouldn’t grow and expand if they didn’t have owners. Both organisations have a number of different stakeholders. Each of the stakeholders will have a level of influence on the businesses. Some stakeholders will have more influence than others. The stakeholders that I think would have the most influence in Oxfam would be volunteers, customers. I think volunteers would have a big influence on the businesses aims and  objectives for Oxfam because without volunteers, the stores wouldn’t be able to run and that means the charity would have money donated for the charity. Oxfam is not out there to make a profit; the business would be struggling not because of them not making a profit as there wouldn’t be anyone to work in the shops. Customers are very important in the influence of Oxfam’s aims and objectives as the business wants to have second hand goods handed in from the customers and then people will buy the second hand goods if they know the money is going to charity. If the customers weren’t coming into the charity shops then this would affect their aim to raise money because there is no-one to buy the products. Overall, I know that within the two contrasting businesses I have described above, they both have a number of different stakeholders that have an influence on their businesses aims and objectives.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Strategic Planning Illy Espressamente

On the other hand, coffee culture in Vietnam is established and strong since colonial time. Globalization and economic growth bring about two main growing segments that Supersaturates should target: Globalizes (well- educated, CARS-focus, globally influenced) and Brand Chasers (novelty, status-seeking). There are several deferent options for expansion but after careful consideration and analysis we come to the conclusion that Supersaturates should reintroduce Itself In Vietnam. In order to capture these segments, we propose offering inspirational value and theatrical performance as new elements of a Blue Ocean.Additionally, we also come up with strategies for two other potential markets, Germany and India. The strategy is to make Supersaturates Vietnam a wholly-owned subsidiary and establish 11 outlets in Ho Chi Mini, Vietnam in the next 6 years, offering superior Italian coffee service by providing high quality and ethically grown coffee with artistic Italian ambiance to two targete d segments – Globalizes (experts and Vietnamese who care about the environment and arts) and Brands Chasers (people who value superior brands), through 5 Italian city-theme designed outlets (Aroma, Venetian, Annapolis,Florence and Milan) with exhibition of local artworks, high-end cafe © bars located in shopping malls and art galleries, associated with visible theatrical performance by the baristas and stopping collaborating with Lien Dhal Blah Dong. The implementation plan In the next 6 years for this strategy (research, operation plan and taking care of relevant necessary documents) suggests penetration of the market in 201 5 by entering the market as a wholly-owned subsidiary.In 6 years, the total expense cost is estimated to be USED 1235,000 for preparation, opening new outlets, communication plan and operation plan. This implementation plan will ensure the success of the proposed strategy. Table of Contents 1. 0 Introduction Lily Supersaturates is a franchise chain by Lily, stretching over 34 countries and purely of coffee-based drinks made from the finest Arabica beans processed with Lily machineries and technique. It has been a stunning success in its home market, Italy and others such as France and Germany, generating millions of revenues.Lily aims to maintain its leadership in the market for authentic Italian cafe ©s by building relationships with suppliers, increasing the number of outlets and differentiating itself from its competitors in term of quality and coffee-drinking experience. However, the launch in Vietnam has been a fiasco as 3 out of the 5 stores in the country have been closed after 4 years of operation. They now face the decision whether to pull out of the country and move to one of the countries in the case or reintroduce itself in the Vietnamese coffee market with a different strategic approach. . 0 Goals and Objectives Business Goals Expand the brand name to global market as the authentic Italian superior coffee service a nd premium service for transit customers. Business Objectives Achieving $1 50,000 revenue per outlet. In the existing markets, increase the total number of outlets by 5% as well as reinforce the operation of the opened one to achieve 20% increase in profitability in the next 5 years. To stand out from competitors by Italian coffee service experience (e. G.Italian-themed superior outlets, Italian coffee styles, bringing artistic value to the service experience). Marketing Goals To be sustainable in the current market and become top-of-mind brand when consumers search for superior Italian transit coffee. Marketing Objectives Increase the availability of Lily Supersaturates by opening at least 8 stores in each country. Offering superior and artistic Italian service environment to attract 40% more customers, generating 20% more profit in the next 5 years. 3. Problem Identification From the ACS analysis, Lily Supersaturates is currently facing 2 main problems: lack of customer-oriented o ffer and lack of exposure in the Vietnamese coffee market. Firstly, the product and service offer is inappropriate as it is perceived to be overpriced and too conservative in making Italian authentic coffee by the Vietnamese customers – ho prefers their traditional black and milky coffee made from Robusta beans. Secondly, Lily Separateness's image could not be seen anywhere except from their outlets.Both of these problems demonstrate the lack of customer insight and marketing campaign coming from Supersaturates collaborator – Lien Thai Bin Dong Pity. Ltd. This master franchisee has shown inefficiency in investigating the customer's wants and needs and what Supersaturates offers. Besides, the company is incapable in managing coffee chained shops as well as running effective marketing campaigns (Appendix E for more details). . 0 Situation Analysis existing chained coffee brands but also new entrants, mainly due to low market barriers and high concentration.Moreover, the Vietnamese customers are not familiar with the taste of Arabica coffee beans. High threats of substitutes (fruit Juice/ smoothie bars) and low coffee consumption per capita combined with high price have a negative impact on Lily Supersaturates. However, acting in the company's favor is its Italian brand name that is well perceived by the Vietnamese consumers. Apart from this, there are segments that pursue higher social statues via branded reduces.In addition, the impacts of globalization as well as the development of sophisticated taste in coffee bring significant opportunities for Lily Supersaturates to penetrate the market. With these come increased concerns for ethics and sustainability coming from the growing segment of globally influenced people. Lily Supersaturates weaknesses lie in understanding customer insight leading to key problems and the lack of integrated marketing communication strategies to promote the brand in such high concentrated market like Vietnam.However, hav ing one the est. quality coffee in the world, enabled by strong relationships established by conducting ethical works with suppliers, the brand still has the capabilities to overcome those difficulties and expand their market share. (Refer to Appendix for details) Direct competitors Highland Trunk Nagy ©n Cataracts Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf Gloria Jean's Angel-in-us Indirect competitors Medium-large Independents Street vendors Strengths (S) High quality coffee beans Strong control over the production chain Expertise in processing Italian coffee Strong relationship with suppliers Foreign brand name – preferred by VietnameseLily has conducted Corporate Social Responsibility via its supply chain by remunerating the farmers higher compensation for higher quality Weaknesses (W) Lack of expertise in processing Vietnamese coffee as in growing, harvesting, roasting and filtering Unnecessary cost due to inefficient logistics Small outlet capacity Lack of market exposure Lack of sales p romotion Large debt Transit model does not fit with Vietnamese culture Opportunities (O) Admiration for Italian brands Growing segment of status-conscious people, who like to be seen in a branded environment.Growing segment of ethics-conscious people who are educated abroad Vietnamese has adopted to a coffee-drinking culture ever since Customers have been developing a sophisticated taste in coffee Vietnam is the 2nd largest coffee producer and Arabica production is growing (5% to 8%) SO Strategies Maintain high quality coffee served to match with the increasing sophisticated taste of Vietnamese people.Penetrate the market by being the leader in high quality product Utilize the strength of foreign brand name in communication Target the growing segment of ethics-conscious and internationally educated people by stating the company's CARS (care for farmers) WOO Strategies Sourcing part of the production chain to Vietnam To penetrate on growing segments to increase in sale to make up in debts by having high-end outlets.Threats (T) Fierce competition between chained coffee shops High threat of new entrants High threat of substitutes Low supply of Arabica in Vietnam Low consumption of coffee, compared to global scale Novelty seeking Vietnamese people are not familiar with Arabica coffee beans SST Strategies Penetrate the market by focusing on premium quality, rather than competing on price Focus on relationships with Vietnamese Arabica growers to consolidate local apply WET Strategies Avoid in going into a price-war with other competitors to increase sales by keeping premium price for premium quality Avoid introducing Robusta coffee beans but bring new taste in the market Differ to other competitors in term of having small capacity yet high-end outlets 5. Strategic Solutions and Situation Scenarios Strategy 1: To achieve $500,000 revenue per store by 2018 by offering a holistic package of high-quality and ethically-grown Italian coffee as well as an aesthetically and intellectually stimulating coffee experience to a segment of well-educated and episcopate Germans in transit, who are concerned for CARS and appreciative of modern arts, through outlets adorned with arts, glassware and merchandises showing Separateness's efforts in improving the environment and the growers' living condition.Description: Cups and dishes will have artworks from modern artists and a piece of information on how sustainable the product is made or how Lily contributes to help the farmers in its supply chain printed on them. However, everything will be kept minimal and sleek, adhering to the current theme. They might be modified in the preparation period as ell as in the middle and end of the 5-year plan to be updated. Merchandise sales, either on separate notice or on the design, will state clearly that part of the profit will go to people in need, R helping lessen the product's carbon footprint and impact on the environment. Potentials Higher sales, not only from food a nd drinks but also from merchandises Reinforce the image of Supersaturates in customer's mind Higher profit margin since Germany is close to Italy (approve. 500 kilometers between Rome and Berlin) The extreme costs of acquiring artworks and fancy decoration The messages come out as pretentious Situation Scenarios: Strategy 2: To establish 5 outlets in India in the next 5 years, offering a high quality Italian coffee and prestigious experience to a segment who seeks for a higher social status and novelty of the population, through luxury-designed outlets on Rajah Street, New Delhi, India. Description: Prestigious experience: Customers visiting Lily Supersaturates will experience the luxury service environment designed base on Italian interior style as well as well- trained waiters serving at the table.The superior coffee service given can place significant impression on the customers and spread the brand value proposition as he authentic Italian cafe ©. Higher social status and nov elty seeking segment: Since India has very high power distance (Hefted 2013), it is indicated that people want to confirm their status and be recognized using premium product/ service brand. Figure Hefted value of India (Hefted 2013) Rajah Street, New Delhi, India: this street is considered to be â€Å"The Royal Street† of India in which many luxurious retailers and hospitality ventures located. By setting Lily Supersaturates outlet in this area, the level of exposure to target customers is higher.Potentials Risks Huge market of growing middle class First mover advantage as the market has low level of competition Lack of acceptance from a tea-drinking population Banking system and bureaucracy may hinder business Strategy 3: To become wholly-owned subsidiary and establish 11 outlets in Ho Chi Mini, Vietnam in the next 5 years, offering superior Italian coffee service by providing segments – Globalizes (expatriates) and Brands Chasers (people who value superior the baris tas and stopping collaborating with Lien Thai Bin Dong. Description: Stop collaborating: Lien Thai Bin Dong does not do well in term of marketing for its partners (Appendix E).Hence, Lily should end the collaboration and take full control over the new outlets operation and communication. Vietnam government will allow foreign wholly owned subsidiary from January 201 5 (distinguishing 2013); hence, Lily Supersaturates has one year for taking care of legal documents and business preparation. Globalizes: we chose this segment because they are well educated as well as leaning toward healthier, more ethical and artistic lifestyle. Hence, they will appreciate the value propositions of Lily Supersaturates, which is high quality and ethically grown coffee alongside with the artistic ambiance. Moreover, this segment also wants self-identity; hence, fitting with Lily Supersaturates offers.Brand chasers: this segment prefers to be seen using superior brand name product/service. Therefore, it is sufficient for Lily Supersaturates target this segment. By establishing 5 Italian city-themed outlets, 1 high-end bar in shopping mall and 5 high-end bars in the art galleries with mentioned tactics, Lily Supersaturates can get closer to the targeted customers and transfer the image of superior Italian experience to them. Potentials Lily Supersaturates can be more active in marketing campaign and have more control ever the business by stop collaborating with Lien Thai Bin Dong Co. The preparation time increases Lily Separateness's likelihood to success.More in-depth research for the market can be made in this period. The artistic and ethical value will attract globalizes and superior value will attract the Brand Chasers. By providing the Italian city themed outlets, Lily Supersaturates can emphasize on the Italian experience provided to its customers. The high-end bars located in galleries require less financial investment. However, the customers the galleries bring to Lily Supersa turates. Lily Supersaturates will have more work to do in terms of market researching to understand the local consumption behavior and handling with Vietnam regulations. The 5 Italian city themed outlets required heavy financial investment. 6. Recommended Strategy and Justification In terms of per capita coffee consumption, Germany ranks the highest across the three countries. Although Vietnamese taste differs from Indian taste of coffee, across all walks of life. India on the other hand, is a low-competition, untapped market. On the contrary, Germany is a saturated market with various different established competitors. The ease of doing business in Germany is the lowest, while Vietnam comes second and India is the hardest with high barriers of bureaucracy. Three strategies above aim to penetrate different markets. Although each market has their potential, the first two markets can cause some problem for Supersaturates.The first one to be eliminated is India market. Although there a re less coffee industry concentration and the match of taste between Indian people and Lily Supersaturates product, India has a tea-drinking culture with the slow switching toward coffee. Moreover, since Supersaturates currently does not possess any outlets in this neutron, it is very hard for the firm to establish their business due to the nation baking system and bureaucracy. In fact, India ranked 17th out of 189 countries in term of starting business (The World Bank 2013). Therefore, Supersaturates should not open its store in India. Secondly, Lily may also face difficulties penetrating Germany market.Despite the substantial coffee drinking market, Germany's coffee industry has very high level of concentration and saturation, which leads to fierce competition. Hence, it is tremendously hard for Supersaturates to stand out from the clutter to be successful. The recommended strategy is strategy 3, penetrating Vietnamese globalizes and brand chasers by offering premium and ethical-g rown coffee as well as authentic Italian service with artistic and novelty value. Although there are high threats of substitution and fierce competition, about 64% Vietnamese people have positive sentiments toward Italian brand and about 58% people link Italian brand with luxury (Miami and Memorial 2012).Hence, the value proposition of Supersaturates to Vietnamese market is appropriate and has a high chance of success in this market. Eliminate Price Reduce Raise Ambiance Availability Augmented products Social status Promotion Create Inspirational Value (Arts) Theatrical Performance (Baristas' coffee-making process) ambiance. By conducting a blue-ocean strategy, which includes avoiding price competition and adding an element of inspiration, Lily Supersaturates separates itself from the current competition and carves a new niche for premium coffee. (Refer to Appendix H for details) 6. 0 Bibliography Alone I and Leasers M 2012, The Espresso Lane to Global Markets, Richard Vive School o f Business, Ontario, Canada.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Cherokee Removal essays

Cherokee Removal essays In my opinion the removal of the Cherokee Indians wasnt justified at all. The Cherokee Indians had settled in Georgia a long time before the European settlers had settled. Now you would think that the government would respect the fact that the Cherokee Indians were there first and that they adapted to the land first. Congress had no right to pass an act called the Indian Removal Act. This act allowed Jackson to go on with his goal of relocating Eastern Native American west of the Mississippi River. Then Georgias lawmakers decided to say that Cherokees could not testify against any white man or dig for gold in their own nation. If youre going to take away what is so close and dear to them, then you should just make them slave, because you already taken away their hopes, dreams, and pride. No person should deserve all of this no matter what race they are. The Supreme Court told the white settlers that they couldnt settle on their land, but do you think that they listened? No they di dnt. Instead they decided to disrespect their land. The white settlers caused so much pain and suffering. To end their pain some got up and left on their own. But there were 18,000 Cherokee Indians werent that reluctant to go. They were/are called the National party. Eventually they got the boot. They had to travel 1,000 miles to their new territory, and on that long journey 4,000 Indians died. They didnt even get to reach their new home. They had to leave the graves of their love ones never to see them again. I just dont get it, they caused no pain or harm to any of those settlers. But yet those settlers had no problem causing pain and harm to them. I take personal offense to this because my great-great grandfather was half Cherokee Indian and his family had to do through this. Nobody deserves to be uprooted from his or her home for any type of reason. Now if I were a Cherokee Indian back at ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Network Planning Essays

Network Planning Essays Network Planning Essay Network Planning Essay I have decided to do the Bargain Booze project. This seems the most logical of choices as there are many more options to explore. It is the project that has the biggest need for change. I also have the most information and knowledge about this business and can therefore make much better recommendations. I have personal experience of working within a few Bargain Booze shops around Stoke on Trent, I have also been a customer in other similar shops. I know the system well and all of its weaknesses and spent many hours thinking about how it could be improved. I still have access to the shops and the systems used as well as having friends that still work there. There are three main layouts in the shop and these are shown on the next page. These are extremely important to look at in relation to the proposed topologies for the network. Resources Each site has similar needs because of the basic Bargain Booze layout of having a few tills at each site. As shown on the next page, the three main layouts used in Stoke on Trent use either one or two computers. The computers that run the till software need to be fairly new to be capable of handling the associated hardware 2GB RAM and a 100GB hard drive would be consider minimum to hold the necessary information from sales. Peripherals used should be wireless so that there are no unnecessary wires when the mouse and keyboard can be stored away. Each till needs specialist till equipment software, scanner, till drawer, price display, and keyboard and receipt printer. There is also a need for lasers printers as the current dot matrix printers are slow and provide bad quality print outs. Bargain Booze has also requested enhanced security to include CCTV running separately from the till systems, preferably handled externally. There should also be motion sensors and multiple panic buttons where all staff can access them. This should be available as a security bundled from an external company. The actual network is quite simple for Bargain Booze. The most expensive needs of Bargain Booze are the routers at each site. Cat 5 cables are needed to connect between the router and the computers. An engineering kit to actually install the network would also be needed. To provide the network, an outside line is needed that is provided by Bargain Boozes ISP. Physical Constraints of the Network The system is going to connect several sites together and needs to work well. There are several options for a network such as this. The limited number of computers at each site reduces the need for an overly advanced system but the distance between the sites is going to be a major factor. Bus Bus topologies are one of the simplest ways of connecting together computers. Each computer is connected to a single cable that the signal can travel between them and at either end; a terminator is used to absorb the signal. This topology is passive and computers only listen for the signal and do not move the signal further across the network. Because of this, only one device may transmit data at a time. The simplicity of this networks means that it is very easy to install initially and then later extend. It also uses a lot less cabling than other topologies and requires no expensive equipment to set up, making it also much cheaper to implement than other topologies. Whilst this network isnt the most efficient network it is suitable for small networks or temporary connections. The main problem with this topology is that is relies on a single cable which is restricted to a certain cable length (depending on the type of cable used) and this will also restrict the number of computers that can be connected. Also, in the event of this cable becoming damaged, the entire network will go down and to fix this cable can be costly and time consuming. This is a potential option. Having a Bus network at each site would be relatively simple and as each site is unlikely to expand within the shops in the future; this would not be a limitation. Each of the sites will then be connected together. Star The Star Topology is based around a single device (such as a hub, switch or router) and all the computers on the network connecting to it through UTP cables. This means that all devices have their own separate connection to the network. If a single cable has a problem, then only that computer will become disconnected from the network. As this topology commonly uses UTP cabling, it is restricted to a maximum cable length of 100 metres. This topology is most suited for much larger networks and is frequently found in larger companies. It can also handle many more connections and this makes is very easy to expand. Instead of the wires being the weak part of the network, in a star network it is the hub that causes problems if it goes down. It is also much more expensive than a simple bus network as it requires expensive hardware at the centre of all of the connections as well as more cabling. A star topology is an option for Bargain Booze. Each site would have a star network and then all the sites will then be connected with an extended star. However, the lack of number of computers at each site means that this may be overkill for the number of connections needed but the reliability makes this an option, as does the relatively short distance between the computer and the connecting device. Ring Computers linked using the Ring Topology, will always be connected to two other computers, linking all devices together. Each computer forwards on the signal to one of the devices connected to it, allowing many computers to be connected to it. This topology relies on constantly working computers, if one goes down then the entire network will stop working. It is also slower and more expensive than a star topology. Another major drawback is that when a computer is either added or taken away, there is major disruption to the network until ring is completed once again. This can make maintenance costly and time consuming and will lead to business delays. A ring network would not be an option. It is more expensive than a star network but is much more limited in what it can do and how it is used. Rings should be replaced with stars in all but a few cases. Bargain Booze will be using an Extended Star as shown in the network diagram below. Analyse potential developments in networking technology which may affect the project. The biggest potential developments are increasing bandwidth and reduced costs. Both of these could dramatically impact the network if what we need for the network was not either currently available or currently within our budget. For Bargain Booze, we do not need a high bandwidth network. As we are currently not even using all of the bandwidth available to us, any newer technologies that have more bandwidth would be too much for the network. It is also likely to be too expensive for a network such as Bargain Booze. Increased bandwidth tasks such as video conferencing would push Bargain Booze towards this, but as it is a simple business a standard wired network is possibly. Fibre Optic cabling is the next step towards higher speed networks. Even though Bargain Booze is not using high bandwidth technologies, they must still be compatible if/when the entire country switches over to fibre. The system should also be designed so that Bargain booze may switch to cabling in the future if they need to. The cost of equipment is constantly changing as newer equipment appears to replace it. Each time a new generation of kit comes out; it pushes the costs of older kit down. This means that being a generation behind is usually cheaper. Because the world of computing is constantly changing and improving; even second generation kit is almost always more than capable of carrying out required tasks. The only time newer kit is required is in extremely demanding situations. A new standard for wireless is about to be released and this is called 802.11n. It is hoped that this is the technology that will push wired users towards wireless connectivity as both speed and range are vastly improved over the existing system. It is hoped that 802.11n will double the speed of wireless and so far, testing is saying that this is true. Making wireless faster and more secure could make it a substitute for situations such as Bargain Boozes network where at the moment, wireless just isnt justifiable. Identify and calculate the cost of all the resources required.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Overview of the Last Glaciation

Overview of the Last Glaciation When did the last Ice Age occur? The worlds most recent glacial period began about 110,000 years ago and ended around 12,500 years ago. The maximum extent of this glacial period was the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and it occurred around 20,000 years ago. Although the Pleistocene Epoch experienced many cycles of glacials and interglacials (the warmer periods between the colder glacial climates), the last glacial period is the most heavily studied and best-known portion of the worlds current ice age, especially with regard to North America and northern Europe. The Geography of the Last Glacial Period At the time of the LGM (map of glaciation), approximately 10 million square miles (~ 26 million square kilometers) of the earth was covered by ice. During this time, Iceland was completely covered as was much of the area south of it as far as the British Isles. In addition, northern Europe was covered as far south as Germany and Poland. In North America, all of Canada and portions of the United States were covered by ice sheets as far south as the Missouri and Ohio Rivers. The Southern Hemisphere experienced the glaciation with the Patagonian Ice Sheet that covered Chile and much of Argentina and Africa and portions of the Middle East and Southeast Asia experienced significant mountain glaciation. Because the ice sheets and mountain glaciers covered so much of the world, local names have been given to the various glaciations around the  world. The Pinedale or Fraser in the North American Rocky Mountains, Greenland, the Devensian in the British Isles, the Weichsel in Northern Europe and Scandinavia, and the Antarctic glaciations are some of the names given to such areas. Wisconsin in North America is one of the more famous and well-studied, as is the Wà ¼rm glaciation of the European Alps. Glacial Climate and Sea Level The North American and European ice sheets of the last glaciation began forming after a prolonged cold stage with increased precipitation (mostly snow in this case) took place. Once the ice sheets began forming, the cold landscape altered typical weather patterns by creating their own air masses. The new weather patterns that developed reinforced the initial weather that created them, plunging the various areas into a cold glacial period. The warmer portions of the globe also experienced a change in climate due to glaciation in that most of them became cooler but drier. For example, rainforest cover in West Africa was reduced and replaced by tropical grasslands because of a lack of rain. At the same time, most of the worlds deserts expanded as they became drier. The American Southwest, Afghanistan, and Iran are exceptions to this rule however as they became wetter once a shift in their airflow patterns took place. Finally, as the last glacial period progressed leading up to the LGM, sea levels worldwide dropped as water became stored in the ice sheets covering the world’s continents. Sea levels went down about 164 feet (50 meters) in 1,000 years. These levels then stayed relatively constant until the ice sheets began to melt toward the end of the glacial period. Flora and Fauna During the last glaciation, shifts in climate altered the world’s vegetation patterns from what they had been prior to the formation of the ice sheets. However, the types of vegetation present during the glaciation are similar to those found today. Many such trees, mosses, flowering plants, insects, birds, shelled mollusks, and mammals are examples. Some mammals also went extinct around the world during this time but it is clear that they did live during the last glacial period. Mammoths, mastodons, long-horned bison, saber-toothed cats, and giant ground sloths are among these. Human history also began in the Pleistocene and we were heavily impacted by the last glaciation. Most importantly, the drop in sea level aided in our movement from Asia into North America as the landmass connecting the two areas in Alaskas Bering Strait (Beringia) surfaced to act as a bridge between the areas. Todays Remnants of the Last Glaciation Though the last glaciation ended about 12,500 years ago, remnants of this climatic episode are common around the world today. For example, increased precipitation in North Americas Great Basin area created enormous lakes (map of lakes) in a normally dry area. Lake Bonneville was one and once covered most of what is today Utah.​ The  Great Salt Lake is todays largest remaining portion of Lake Bonneville but the old shorelines of the lake can be seen on the mountains around Salt Lake City. Various landforms also exist around the world because of the enormous power of moving glaciers and ice sheets. In Canadas Manitoba for instance, numerous small lakes dot the landscape. These were formed as the moving ice sheet gouged out the land beneath it. Over time, the depressions formed filled with water creating kettle lakes. Finally, there are many glaciers still present around the world today and they are some of the most famous remnants of the last glaciation. Most ice today is located in Antarctica and Greenland but some ice is also found in Canada, Alaska, California, Asia, and New Zealand. Most impressively though are the glaciers still found in the equatorial regions like South Americas Andes Mountains and Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa. Most of the worlds glaciers are famous today however for their significant retreats in recent years. Such a retreat represents a new shift in the earth’s climate- something that has happened time and time again over the earths 4.6 billion year history and will no doubt continue to do in the future.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

A critical evaluation of an article for Corporate Restructuring Essay

A critical evaluation of an article for Corporate Restructuring - Essay Example ich was under performing is bound to perform better post acquisition through better management and deployment of resources which might have been wanting prior to the acquisition. On the other hand an acquisition without resistance as a friendly acquisition is bound to experience lesser value creation post acquisition as the friendly firm already doing well and selling itself at a premium would leave further scope value creation in the long run. In fact, it can be value destroying. The recommendation of the study is that there should be no regulatory ban on hostile takeovers. Limitations : Hostile takeover as means of higher value creation has not been fully recognized. In the U.S. , law is in favor of incumbent management and against hostile takeovers (Sudarsanam & Mahate, 2006), (He & Wang, 2013). He, R., & Wang, T. (2013). Similar Technology, Complementary Technology and Long-term Shareholder Value of Acquiring Firm in Technology Acquisitions: Evidence from High-tech Industries in China. Information Technology Journal , 12, 1932-1940. Sudarsanam, S., & Mahate, A. A. (2006). Are Friendly Acquisitions Too Bad for Shareholders and Managers? Long-Term Value Creation and Top Management Turnover in Hostile and Friendly Acquirers. British Journal of Management , 17,

Friday, October 18, 2019

Giving tips about how to play soccer well Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Giving tips about how to play soccer well - Essay Example The Korean government has always invested a lot into the soccer industry because it is a good way to unite the nation. As far as playing soccer is concerned, it apparently seems to be very easy to play. I, however, guarantee you that when you go to the field to play soccer, it is not going to be that simple as you imagine. Therefore, I have decided to share some tips with you so as to train you to better play soccer. First of all, let me introduce the sport. Soccer is played between two 11-player teams. The players try to get points by kicking the ball, passing, shooting, heading, all by using their body except hands. To play soccer, the basic elements needed include a spherical ball, teammates, opponents, ground marked with boundaries and goals opposite each other. The teams must know all soccer rules. Readers! Do not worry, here come the tips. The first thing to remember is that there should be always appropriate form of clothing to play soccer. Have you ever gone to a dance party with your night suit on? Or, have you ever seen the bride wearing a lousy T-shirt and a pajama? Most probably, you have not (or have you?) Similarly, to play soccer, you must have proper clothes and safety gear. You need to have the clothes that the wind can easily go through because you will sweat like a pig when you are on the field. You need soccer shoes not only to prevent you from slipping on a grass field, but also to help you kick the ball more powerfully and accurately. This gear will assist you to improve your athletic ability. Glasses are not the recommended gear because you can get hurt if the ball hits your face. It can give you a serious wound, like the one I received last weekend. Oh! It still hurts. I wish I had never thought of the idea of having those glasses on! It can happen to anybod y so you should be aware of this beforehand. Remember that you play sports to have fun and not to get hurt. Now, you

The Education of Professionals Research Proposal

The Education of Professionals - Research Proposal Example According to Hall [(1968) as cited by Fertig (2003)], professionalism can be associated with the performance of the professional in his or her most individual capacity. Hall (1968) identified the role of the professional academic as embodying a belief in serving the public and a sense of autonomy and commitment towards his or her respective profession. This view is also shared by Engel (1970) who regarded professionalism amongst academics as focussing on individuality in the actions and the decision-making process. Exworthy & Halford (1999) have stressed the impact of tighter accountability control within Higher Education particularly for the professionals within the HE sector in order to achieve efficiency [as cited by Fertig (2003)]. In this vein, this paper explores how this has affected the concept of professionalism in Higher Education. The Changing Meaning of Professionals and Professionalism It is true to a large extent that the modern notions of professionals and professionalism have changed considerably due to the changing notions of these concepts over time. As stated in Fertig (2003), Robson (1998) and Harper (2000) share the view that there is a pronounced trend of professional management within the Higher Education sector in England where a distinction can be drawn with and the 'professional' paradigms There is also a pronounced trend of specialization within the professions which is reflected in the way the modern courses and teaching are structured.. This is demonstrated by Koehn (1994:150) for whom professional ethics are â€Å"an institutionalized expression of prevailing public morality†. Abbott (1988) has argued that professionalism and higher professional education share a deep bond. Ethics and Professionalism The problem of ethics within the education of the professions comes in where there is a problem of â€Å"specialization† providing the ability to ask for high fees and higher rewards which some academics have sought to pacify as necessary for the public interest (Abbott, 1988).

All the Light we cannot see Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

All the Light we cannot see - Research Paper Example As a matter of fact, that as the essential reason why the then global leaders saw it suitable to establish the League of Nations, which has developed into the United Nations Organization. In his novel titled All the Light We Cannot See, distinguished American author and literature fanatic Anthony Doerr uses the book’s setting to open the eyes of the World to some of the unfortunate events that took place during the World War. Doerr employs various literary charms such as characterization and tone, to demonstrate the devastating consequences of war and the approaches an individual can employ to bring the best out of the situation amidst the myriad of challenges (Anthony Doerr Book Website). This research paper therefore aims to provide further insight on how Anthony Doerr has employed setting, plot and tone to take us through one of the darkest periods in World history; World War Two. Literary scholars have overtime reaffirmed the fact that the setting of any work of art is important, particularly because it plays a significant role in determining whether the author is successful in driving his or her message home. All the light we cannot see is set in both France and Germany with several events taking place between 1930s and 1940s. Whereas the events in Germany revolve around the life of Warner Pfenning and his sister Jutta who are both orphaned, it is imperative to note that the Doerr is in essence trying to shed more light on the Nazi culture, and some of the principles they cohere to so profoundly. At the same time, the decision of the author to focus Marie-Laure’s undertakings in the city of Paris is essentially aimed at helping the vast audience make sense of the cultures and beliefs of the French in the period leading to and after World War Two. Going through the text, it is apparent that the setting within which all the lights we cannot see is documented is in line with the historical events of the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

ITECFINAL Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

ITECFINAL - Essay Example For instance, on its initial launch, users need to register for an account prior to do online shopping for insurance plans. There was a design flaw that was provoking uncertainty to the website visitors/users and hence was imposing a serious error in user e-commerce experience. Moreover, the design was constructed by non-technical personnel without any knowledge of how the website will utilize technology available at backend. It is astonishing that the user can access all the contents of the website without registration and the website should not degrade its performance when a large number of users trying to purchase health insurance. However, for a federal function website, 700, 000 is not a massive number in terms of other federal or government website visitors. Moreover, if we compare the number of visitors with some other popular social networking sites, they have billions of daily visitors. Likewise, the integration of this site with the other sites such as Internet Revenue Serv ice and the Department of Veteran affairs has severely affected its navigation response. Moving forward, the website needs to validate information from different interfaces of other systems that are using old technology, there is a dependency that needs to be sorted in the design phase of this website. Currently, the delay occurring on these old systems is reflecting on the website and end user is suffering. Secondly, there is one more issue that adds more problems for the end users i.e. data corruption that has already been identified and it is increasing day by day. The data submitted by the end users is submitted to insurance companies via and they have already reported about receiving bad data, as there are issues in dependent classifications etc. As already more than fifty vendors were working on different areas of this site, glitches were expected. Experts concludes that the project was not handled to perfection and

Influence of Ideology on the criminal justice system and how criminal Essay

Influence of Ideology on the criminal justice system and how criminal justice policies are created from ideology - Essay Example The use of ideology is a permanent hidden agenda because it masks the reality and not even scholars question that. There is general confusion between ideology and criminological theory and which influences the structures and the processes of the criminal justice system, People are made to believe they are influenced by ideology while all the answers lie in the criminological theory as it is the one that is based on research and not beliefs and assumptions like the ideology (Williams and Robinson, 2004). The first assumption is that ideology controls the criminal justice process and system but this does not seem to be the case from research. The reality of this situation is that ideology is just as a mask and term coined by scholars to confuse them of the real happenings in the criminal justice system. The other assumption of ideology is that it will be able to bridge the gulf present between the reality and what actually happens in the criminal justice system. This is assumed to be possible by incorporating the humanity aspect which has all along been lacking in the criminal justice system. This is a great assumption on the part of the proponents of the criminal justice system and they only have to move from the theoretical aspect to the practical aspect of the assumption to see if it will actually work. The other assumptions according to the article are that ideology will be able to encourage the critical analysis of criminal justice system, it will be able to assess the implications of crime in as far as issues of social and political nature are concerned. The other major assumption is that ideology will be able to lead the process of rethinking about reorganization of the present criminal justice as it is and make different approaches. Ideologies are used in various areas of policy making such as ethics, punishment, law making, justice, in economic and power, in

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

ITECFINAL Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

ITECFINAL - Essay Example For instance, on its initial launch, users need to register for an account prior to do online shopping for insurance plans. There was a design flaw that was provoking uncertainty to the website visitors/users and hence was imposing a serious error in user e-commerce experience. Moreover, the design was constructed by non-technical personnel without any knowledge of how the website will utilize technology available at backend. It is astonishing that the user can access all the contents of the website without registration and the website should not degrade its performance when a large number of users trying to purchase health insurance. However, for a federal function website, 700, 000 is not a massive number in terms of other federal or government website visitors. Moreover, if we compare the number of visitors with some other popular social networking sites, they have billions of daily visitors. Likewise, the integration of this site with the other sites such as Internet Revenue Serv ice and the Department of Veteran affairs has severely affected its navigation response. Moving forward, the website needs to validate information from different interfaces of other systems that are using old technology, there is a dependency that needs to be sorted in the design phase of this website. Currently, the delay occurring on these old systems is reflecting on the website and end user is suffering. Secondly, there is one more issue that adds more problems for the end users i.e. data corruption that has already been identified and it is increasing day by day. The data submitted by the end users is submitted to insurance companies via and they have already reported about receiving bad data, as there are issues in dependent classifications etc. As already more than fifty vendors were working on different areas of this site, glitches were expected. Experts concludes that the project was not handled to perfection and

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Personality Strengths for a Checkered Career Essay

Personality Strengths for a Checkered Career - Essay Example Indeed in a world where business is no longer insulated from the 21st century globalized competition, being flexible is more of a virtue that is crucial in penetrating the obstacles erected by even the most conservative cultures in history. Noteworthy, ingesting every ideas supplied by nature is in itself detrimental career-wise. Success is determined by how one critically separate useful from non-useful ideas in presented in different circumstances. Through my analytical nature, I have learnt to my voice my opinion whenever necessary, giving well-reasoned out thoughts/feedbacks capable of furthering projects with viable prospects, for organizational ventures are but products of teamwork. While important in organizational wellbeing, Idea Generation is only a single a process that must be augmented by elements. Implementation of such ideas requires strategy/focus. I am more determined than ever to being part of the solution to existing organizational problems by executing the assign r esponsibilities using the best route possible, for innovation is the new, indispensable competition front that any organizations, including my dream destination, cannot do without. Being adaptable to the ever changing circumstances, I am more than certain that I will monitor and adjust/recommend adjustments to organizational plans whenever necessary. Not forgetting the importance of being self-assured, I am more than prepared to motivate colleagues towards believing in themselves and their abilities. Finally, I have tested my resolve to challenges the status quo through innovative ideas, and so come with responsibility. From the very quality of work done to being time conscious, I am more than committed to presenting my commensurable worth in bringing change that the society so needs. Value Addition My education at The Johns Hopkins University, the internships, as well as the experiences in volunteering did help a great deal in equipping me with the professional skills needed as a m arketing researcher. I now consider myself not only a professional, but a responsible individual grounded with certain fundamental work ethics to begin with in any would be destination-organization. Taking responsibility is a much wider concept in organizational growth context, and work ethics is no exception, for the image projected to the public at large depends much on individuals’ responsible decision-making and/or actions summed up together. A marketing executive is a messenger; a messenger with a mission of diverting traffic towards services/products that are in competition for a sliver of potential market. Ethics is, thus, essential in the entire message delivered, which in every sense, must be done in time and within the confines of professional standards. As a foundation of professionalism in this area of service, knowledge is vital. However, it is always never enough as its acquisition is a lifelong process. With all these knowledge, I look forward to a superb caree r where challenges are taken positively and mistakes ingested as learning opportunities but minimized as much as possible. It is important to note that while the delivery of organizational targets may be a priority, doing so at the expense of work ethics

Monday, October 14, 2019

Detection of Pesticides in Foods Using Chemiluminescence

Detection of Pesticides in Foods Using Chemiluminescence Sensitive And Selective Detection of Pesticides in Foods Using Chemiluminescence Zhou Yan Introduction Pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect seeds and crops before and after harvesting. They have contributed significant economic benefits to society. At the same time, widespread use of pesticides has created serious problems regarding their effect on the environment and human health.[1]. Even low levels of contaminants can cause adverse effects on humans, animals, plants, and ecosystems. The application of pesticides has increased appreciably during the past few years, resulting in a potential risk for the human health.[2] .During recent decades, the number of publications on pesticide residue analysis has increased significantly, and important advances have been made in the development of methods for a wide variety of sample types[3]. N-methylcarbamates (NMCs) are commonly employed as pesticides, the structures show in figure 1. Their main characteristics of NMCs are low stability, high toxicity, and non-accumulation in organic tissues. Some of the NMCs, including carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb, are considered in the final list of compounds to be considered for periodic re-evaluations by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR)[4]. Fig.1 Stucture of the selected N-methylcarbamates Analysis of pesticides in food, environmental, forensic and clinical samples is a difficult task because of the low concentration values and matrix complexity of the target compounds. Gas chromatography (GC) has been widely used for pesticide analysis in food, clinical and environmental samples due to its high selectivity and sensitivity [5]. However, some analytes are not suitable for GC separation because of their low volatility, thermal lability or high polarity. Phenylurea, carbamate, benzimididazole some pyrethroid,, organophosphorus, and quaternary ammonium derivatives are examples of such pesticides[6] . Chemiluminescence is defined as the emission of light as the result of a chemical reaction[7]. Chemiluminescence (CL) is one of the highest sensitive analytical techniques for the detection of pesticides, due to the high dilution of these substances in environmental samples and compounds in a great variety of matrices depending on their participation in a CL reaction as catalysts, precursors, oxidation, inhibitors and so on. Three Sensitive And Selective Methods Detecting Pesticides in Foods Using Chemiluminescence Determination of pesticides in water and vegetables by HPLC with post-column chemiluminescence using the luminol reaction .[8]. Chemiluminescence (CL) has been revealed as an excellent tool for the detection of pesticides.[9] .The best known example is the luminol (5-aminophthalylhydrazide), The Proposed mechanism of the luminol CL reaction shows in Fig 2, when (5-aminophthalylhydrazide) is oxidated in alkaline medium , it produces the excited 3-aminophthalate anion, which emits light when it is relaxed to the ground state using several oxidants such hexacyanoferrate (III), permanganat and hydrogen peroxide and so on [10]. The reaction presents a powerful application as detection system in flow injection analysis (FIA) or in liquid chromatography (HPLC), where luminol-type compounds can be used as a derivatization reagents allowing the analytes to be detected at very low levels. Fig. 2 Proposed mechanism for the luminol CL reaction. A scheme of the HPLC–UV–CL system is shown in Fig. 3. The reversed phase separation was carried out in a C18 column. A peristaltic pump was used to deliver luminol and potassium permanganate . After separation and UV/vis detection at wavelength of 220 nm, with the stream of potassium permanganate and luminol solutions. A mixing reactor (d1) linked both â€Å"T† connectors. Another mixing reactor (d2 ), was used to link the outlet of the inlet of the detection cell and the second connector. The resulting stream was passed to the detection cell and the CL emission from oxidation of luminol was recorded as the background blank signal (baseline). The quantification of carbamates was based on the increase in the CL intensity , calculated as A=[I/IIS], where A is the analytical signal, I is the net CL signal due to the presence of the NMCs in the luminol–KMnO4 system, IIS is the CL signal. due to the internal standard. Ethiofencarb was choosed to be the IS ,due to it is well differentiated from the rest of analytes in the selected chromatographic conditions and also it is a NMC which produced an enhancement of the CL emission from the luminol oxidation by potassium permanganate in alkaline medium. Fig, 3 Scheme of the HPLC-UV-CL manifold, d1, d2: mixing reactors Recovery experiments were carried out in vegetables to check the applicability of the proposed methodology ,to make sure if it can use in the detection of NMCs in the real sample. No NMCs were detected when a sample blank was analyzed using the proposed method. Three replicates were prepared at each concentration level, and each one was injected by duplicate. obtaining recoveries in the range of 107.7–88.6%. Chromatograms of cucumber sample are presented in Fig. 4. Fig.4 Chromatogram of a cucumber sample applying the proposed HPLC–CL method: (A) Blank sample; (B) sample spiked with 50ug kg−1carbofuran and methiocarb and 5ug kg−1 carbaryl. Peaks: 1, carbofuran; 2, carbaryl; 3, methiocarb; IS, internal standard. A sensitive and selective HPLC–CL method was used for the determination of NMCs in vegetables. Compared with other sensitive methodologies which use CL or fluorescence detection, this method is very simple because no derivatization process is needed. the great enhancement produced by these compounds on the CL emission of luminol using permanganate as oxidant makes the resolution of three carbamates (carbofuran, carbaryl, and methiocarb) in less than 14 min possible. Chemiluminescence Switching on Peroxidase Like Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Selective Determination of Various Pesticides.[11] Due to the classical CL systems have very low efficiency which can not transform the chemical energy into light efficiently, so the enhancement of their CL efficiency to give intense emission intensity is one of the most important factors in quantitative analysis. From now on , a number of approaches have been explored for the enhancement of the efficiency. Such as developing intrinsically selective CL switching at the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles ,which make a great contribution to the sensitive detection and simultaneous determination of various pesticides. Fe3O4 nanoparticles with high peroxidase-like catalytic activity can catalyze the decomposition of dissolved oxygen to generate superoxide anions at their surface. The surface superoxide anions have high chances to be scavenged in the presence of ethanol. However, the scavenging effect can be effectively inhibited through the specific binding of target molecules on Fe3O4 nanoparticles. As shown in figure 5, water has no effect on the CL change but ethanol can lead to a significant CL quenching of the luminol−Fe3O4 system. EP is one of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides . there is no CL response of the EP aqueous solution in the luminol−Fe3O4 system by using pesticide ethoprophos (EP) as the target analyte. If we add EP ethanol solution ,which resulting a significant CL enhancement . we can abserved clearly. Fig 5 Pesticide Ethoprophos (EP) and the Mediums Produce the CL Response on Luminol (LUM)-Based CL Systems As shown in Figure 6A, With increasing the concentration of EP solution to the luminol−Fe3O4−ethanol system, the CL will significantly and continuously enhanced. Such high enhancing response has proved that EP molecules can inhibit the scavenging of superoxide anions efficiently. But not all organophosphorus have this function. As shown in Figure 6B, only EP and PF organophosphorus esters (containing P=O bond) with a phosphorus−sulfur bond (P−S bond) are able to light up the CL systerm in luminol−Fe3O4−ethanol solution. Fig 6 CL switching-on chemosensor for sensitively and selectivel (A) CL enhancement of the luminol−Fe3O4 ethanol system with increasing the concentration of EP . (B) The CL response selectivity to arious pesticides (0.1 mM): ethoprophos (EP), profenofos (PF), dylox (DL), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). In order to make sense of the mechanism of CL switching, we choose the FeCl2 as source materials to study the interaction between EP molecules and Fe2+ ions. For the purpose of having better understanding of the coordinative groups, we do the theoretical energy calculations, as shown in Fig 7. Due to the important principle of energy minimum, the conformation was optimized as the coordination of sulfur atom instead of the oxygen atom. This result is reasonable because sulfur is more polarizable than oxygen and naturaly has a stronger coordinative bond formation. These calculations and discussions imply that EP molecules will have the strongest coordinative with Fe2+ ions, among the four different pesticides. Therefore, it is reasonable to suppose that the CL enhancement is attributed to the coordination of EP molecules on surface Fe2+ ions that inhibits the scavenging of superoxide anions. Fig 7 Optimized Conformations of the Complexes of (EP)2 -FeCl2 Based on the Theoretical Calculation of the Binding Energies (ΔE) for Different Coordination Formats The mechanism of CL switching is illustrated in Figure 8. Firstly decomposition of dissolved oxygen by the intrinsic peroxidase-like catalytic activity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, we can get the superoxide anions, and due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of the nanoparticles, the resultant superoxide anions will absorb at the surface of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles (1).Then, ethanol reacts with superoxide anions through the radical scavenging process (2) there is no light emission after the addition of luminol (3) EP molecules are first added into the Fe3O4 colloidal solution before adding ethanol, (4). This molecular structure can effectively inhibit the scavenging of superoxide anions from ethanol (5) even if in the presence of ethanol, the addition of luminol still produces a strong light emission (6). The two CL response formats are combined to form a CL â€Å"switching-on† chemosensor (7). Fig 8 Mechanism of CL switching at the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles: The CL â€Å"turn-on† chemosensor was used to sensitively detect nonredox molecules specificitly. and has a a lot of application in lab experiment, because of it has the ability to detect molecules of interest in complexed and real samples after a simple magnetic separation.. The very simple and versatile strategy should open a new window of the development of CL chemosensors. And also make a great development in the application of magnetic nanoparticles (à ¤Ã‚ ¸Ã¢â‚¬ °) Analytical performances of validated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays to detect N-methylcarbamate pesticidesà £Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ 12à £Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with chemiluminescent detection for the determination of carbaryl carbofuran and methiocarb were developed recently and the analytical parameters of these assays were compared with those of ELISAs with colorimetric detection. By using the chemiluminescent reagents for the detection of lower concentrations of horseradish peroxidase which can decrease the optimal antibody and conjugate concentrations and to reach better analytical parameters. Both in terms of accuracy and precision, results obtained by ELISAs correlated well. with those obtained by a liquid chromatography–electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS) analysis, and also used as reference method to validate the immunoassays results. In order to fit into the linear part of the calibration curve and subsequently analysed by ELISA, each primary test sample was subjected to three independent dilutions .The dilution factors applied for the Nmethylcarbamate analysis are shown in Fig 9. Fig 9. Concentrations of immunoreagents and baby food sample dilutions applied in the ELISAs The reported results show that the chemiluminescent detection make a great improvement for the analytical performances of carbamates ELISAs. What’s more, the chemiluminescent ones with lower detection limits, can analyse various kinds of non-fatty samples simply and easily, just diluting them. This fact could avoid the extraction procedures and time consuming pre-treatment . Since the problems related with possible matrix effects can be easily overcome by using highly diluted samples. The time required to prepare the samples can be greatly reduced and their number increased significantly in each analytical session, as well as the reagents cost per assay is reduced. Conclusion : This review mainly introduce three Sensitive and Selective Methods Detecting Pesticides in Foods Using Chemiluminescence, each has advantages and disadvantages.(as shown in the following table). We can choose the appropriate method according to different situations. References: [1] Varsamis, D. C; Touloupakis, E.; Morlacchi, P.; Ghanotakis, D. C.; Giardi, M. T.;  Cullen, D. C. Talanta 2008, 77, 42–47. [2] Martà ­nez, E. J.; Barrales, P.; Cà ³rdova, M. L.; Medina, A. Anal Chimica Acta 2011, 684, 30–39. [3] Hua, L.; Mei, G.; Ping, H.; Yong, Z.; Long, L.; Hua, J.; Yong , M. Anal. Chem. 2012, 84, 255−261. [4] Alinorm 01/24A Appendix IX. Priority list of compounds scheduled for evaluation or reevaluation by JMPR. 2001 Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR). [5] Xian , G.; Tao, C.; Guang, Y. Chromatography A. 2005, 1100, 160–167. [6] Lesueur, C.; Knittl, P.; Gartner, M.; Mentler, A.; Fuerhacker, M.; Food Control. 2008, 19 906–914. [7] Gracia, A. M.; CampaËÅ" na, J. J.; Chinchilla, J. F.; Pà ©rez, A.; Casado. Trends. Anal. Chem. 2005, 24, 927. [8] Fernando, J.; Pà ©rez, H.; Marà ­a, A.; Campa, N. Anal Chimica Acta.2008, 630,194–200 [9] Lopez, J. L.; Catala-Icardo, M. Anal. lett .2011,44,146-175. [10]Laura, G..G.; Ana, M.; GarcÄ ±Ã‚ ´a, C.; Jorge, J. ;Soto, C.;, Jose, F.; Huertas, F.; Gonza, L. C. Anal Chem,2005 ,24, 11, [11] Guan, G. J.; Yang, L.; Mei, Q. S.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Z. P.; Han, M. Y. Anal. Chem. 2012, 84, 9492−9497. [12] Barbora, M.; Tomas, K.; Pavel, R.; Mar ´Ãƒâ€žÃ‚ ±a, J. M.; Antonio, A.; Angel, M.; Elida, F.; Fabiana, F.; Stefano, G.. Anal .Chimica. Acta .2005,528,243–248.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Analysis of Shellys Ode to the West Wind :: essays papers

Analysis of Shellys Ode to the West Wind Analysis of Shelly's "Ode to the West Wind" â€Å"Ode to the West Wind† is a poem of deep despair as well as one of vivid imagery. The first section is fairly straightforward with constant references to death, corpses and destruction that Shelly uses as a metaphor for autumn. The allusion to disease and darkness describes the West Wind in this first section. Shelly sees it as a sort of ‘grim reaper’ but seems to come back from the whole topic by also calling it the â€Å"preserver†. In the second section Shelly takes a more lofty perspective in the beginning mentioning heaven and angels and then moves to give a depiction of hell in the last line of the section with â€Å"black rain and fire and hail will burst†. To be a little more precise, the second section is one comparing an oncoming storm to the end of a year. Perhaps Shelly feels that the next year will not be as good as the last and one can even speculate that the west winds are the winds of change or even of evil. I feel that the third section really supports the theory that Shelly did portray the west wind as the bringer of evil. The wind is described to be awakened from a place of peace and beauty. The line â€Å"Thy voice, and suddenly grow grey with fear† seems to describe a sense of darkness and loathing, a chilling feeling flowing through the veins. The west wind is power. The fourth section plays on the feeling that this wind is all-powerful and Shelly seems to give the impression of bowing down before it. Impulses, uncontrollable, tame-less are all words used to describe the wind in this section. In almost a begging tone the speaker of the poem asks to be taken away from his pain as said â€Å"Oh! Lift me as a wave, a leaf, a cloud! / I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed!†. Going back in the poem though the west wind seems to have created this and the speaker loathes it, but here shows he also still needs it. The final section seems to come to terms with the west wind. The asking for music even though the leaves are gone and there is not to celebrate shows this perspective: I will still play but it will be one of sadness.