Sunday, September 1, 2019
Ap Euro Review Packet
Ap Packet page 6 D. English Civil War 1. Political- One of the causes was CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s I unsuccessful attempt to arrest five members of Parliament, known as the Grand Remonstrance, on January 4, 1642. Another cause was who should have the power in the country and inflation forced up prices in all parts of Europe. An effect would be that England became a Commonwealth and a Protectorate. Parliamentary supremacy was another effect. 2. Religious-One of the causes was that the Puritans, sought to do away with bishops and revise the Prayer book; Charles fought against them. The main cause was over religion in which the puritans accused Charles and Laud of leaning towards Roman Catholicism. Effects are the protestant church established and religious toleration. E. Glorious Revolution 1. Social- The Glorious Revolution changed England socially because Mary and William allow the people to have a say in politics and religious toleration with the Toleration Act. 2. Political- It changed England by having William and Mary sign the Bill of Rights. This made England a Constitutional Monarchy. A constitutional monarchy acknowledges the monarch as the official head of state but the real power is in the hands of the parliament. F. 1. Stuarts The House of Stuart is a European royal house. It was founded by Robert II of Scotland, and the Stewarts first became monarchs of the Kingdom of Scotland during the late 14th century, and subsequently held the position of the Kings of Great Britain and Ireland. Their patrilineal ancestors had held the title High Steward of Scotland since the 12th century, after arriving by way of Norman England. The dynasty inherited further territory by the 17th century which covered the entire British Isles, including the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Ireland, also upholding a claim to the Kingdom of France. The significance of the Stuarts is that they were the first kings of the United Kingdom and that they brought disaster to England. 2. Whigs The Whigs were a party in the Parliament of England, Parliament of Great Britain, and Parliament of the United Kingdom, who contested power with the rival Tories from the 1680s to the 1850s. The Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute rule. Both parties began as loose groupings or tendencies, but became quite formal by 1784, with the ascension of Charles James Fox as the leader of a reconstituted Ã¢â¬Å"WhigÃ¢â¬ party ranged against the governing party of the new Ã¢â¬Å"ToriesÃ¢â¬ under William Pitt the Younger. Both parties were founded on rich politicians, more than on popular votes; there were elections to the House of Commons, but a small number of men controlled most of the voters. The significance of the Whigs is that the Whigs political program came to encompass not only the supremacy of parliament over the monarch and support for free trade, but Catholic emancipation, the abolition of slavery and expansion of the franchise. 3. Tories In the 17th century it had become a term applied to monarchists in the House of Commons. By the 18th century the Tories were politicians who favored royal authority, the established church and who sought to preserve the traditional political structure and opposed parliamentary reform. After 1834 this political group in the House of Commons preferred to use the term Conservative. The significance of the Tories was that they emerged to uphold the legitimist rights of James, Duke of York to succeed his brother Charles II to the British throne. G. 1. Politique is a term that was used during the sixteenth and seventeenth century Wars of Religion, to describe moderates of both religious faiths (Huguenots and Catholics) who held that only the restoration of a strong monarchy could save France from total collapse. It frequently included a pejorative connotation of moral or religious indifference. The term gained great currency after 1568 with the appearance of radical Catholic Leagues calling for the eradication of Protestantism in France, and by 1588 the politique were seen by detractors as an organized group, and treated as worse than heretics. 2. Henry IV was King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. He was the first monarch of the Bourbon branch of the Capetian dynasty in France. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the Wars of Religion before ascending the throne in 1589. Before his coronation as King of France at Chartres, he changed his faith from Calvinism to Catholicism and, in 1598, he enacted the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to the Protestants, thereby effectively ending the civil war. One of the most popular French kings, both during and after his reign, Henry showed great care for the welfare of his subjects and displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the time. By him granting religious liberties to the Protestants he was helping establishing a modern state in France. 3. Cardinal Richelieu was consecrated as a bishop in 1608, he later entered politics, becoming a Secretary of State in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Catholic Church and the French government, becoming a Cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624. The Cardinal de Richelieu was often known by the title of the King's Ã¢â¬Å"Chief MinisterÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"First MinisterÃ¢â¬ . As a result, he is considered to be the world's first Prime Minister, in the modern sense of the term. He sought to consolidate royal power and crush domestic factions. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong, centralized state. His chief foreign policy objective was to check the power of the Austro-Spanish Habsburg dynasty, and to ensure French dominance in the Thirty Years' War that engulfed Europe. Although he was a cardinal, he did not hesitate to make alliances with Protestant rulers in attempting to achieve his goals. By doing all of this he was helping establish a modern state. 4. Cardinal Mazarin was a French-Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician, who served as the chief minister of France from 1642 until his death. Mazarin succeeded his mentor, Cardinal Richelieu. He was a noted collector of art and jewels, particularly diamonds, and he bequeathed the Ã¢â¬Å"Mazarin diamondsÃ¢â¬ to Louis XIV in 1661, some of which remain in the collection of the Louvre museum in Paris. His personal library was the origin of the Bibliotheque Mazarine in Paris. He helps establish the basis for a modern state in France by following in Richelieu policies. . The Fronde was a civil war in France, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635. The Fronde was divided into two campaigns, the Fronde of the parliaments and the Fronde of the nobles. The timing of the outbreak of the Fronde des parliaments, directly after the Peace of Westphalia (1648) that ended the Thirty Years War, was significant. The nuclei of armed bands under aristocratic leader s that terrorized parts of France had been hardened in a generation of war in Germany where troops still tended to operate autonomously. Louis XIV, impressed as a young ruler with the experience of the Fronde, came to reorganize French fighting forces under a stricter hierarchy whose leaders ultimately could be made or unmade by the King. Thus the Fronde finally resulted in the disempowerment of the territorial aristocracy and the emergence of absolute monarchy. They help establish the basis for a modern state in France by strength the crown since it made people realized that it was better to be ruled by a strong king then to be dominated by competing and contentious noblemen. . Louis XIV was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre. He ruled France as an absolute monarch by declaring that Ã¢â¬Å"I am the stateÃ¢â¬ . The experience of the Fronde taught him to distrust the nobles. He believed in the divine right of king provided the justification for absolute monarchy. He was smart enough to create Versailles in order to keep a track of the nobles. He help establish the basis for a modern state by pr oviding a method on how to keep the nobles content and thus make them not revolt against the king. 7. Jean-Baptiste Colbert was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. His relentless hard work and thrift made him an esteemed minister. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from the brink of bankruptcy. Historians note that, despite Colbert's efforts, France actually became increasingly impoverished because of the King's excessive spending on wars. Colbert worked to create a favorable balance of trade and increase France's colonial holdings. Colbert's plan was to build a general academy. Colbert's market reforms included the foundation of the Manufacture royale de glaces de miroirs in 1665 to supplant the importation of Venetian glass and to encourage the technical expertise of Flemish cloth manufacturing in France. He also founded royal tapestry works at Gobelins and supported those at Beauvais. Colbert worked to develop the domestic economy by raising tariffs and by encouraging major public works projects. Colbert also worked to ensure that the French East India Company had access to foreign markets, so that they could always obtain coffee, cotton, dyewoods, fur, pepper, and sugar. In addition, Colbert founded the French merchant marine. Colbert issued more than 150 edicts to regulate the guilds. One such law had the intention of improving the quality of cloth. The edict declared that if the authorities found a merchant's cloth unsatisfactory on three separate occasions, they were to tie him to a post with the cloth attached to him. He establishes the basis for a way to improve economy so that the people can get jobs thus helping reducing the unemployment rate in France.