Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Globalization & concept Essay Example for Free

Globalization concept Essay Globalization is a concept that has emerged over recent past that have gained a lot of attention from the global people. Globalization is not anew concept because it has developed over time due to the interaction of people from ti me to time. The definition of globalization takes new direction every time because of its usage and transcends all spheres of life (Oregon State 2008). According to Robertson (1992) socialist define it a the comprehension and intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole unit. It has been elevated by the fact that the world has become more interdependent than before as from 20th century. The term is loosely used to symbolize meaning of consciousness, receptiveness and understanding of cultures, appreciation of the world socio-economics and ecological aspects. The term global village emerged in early 1960s to mean a shrinking world which was popularized by the media. The media has also tried to emphasize on the global community concept. The subject of globalization has shaped its objectiveness and subjectiveness. The evolution of globalization has been triggered by events such as wars and conflicts, the emergence of third world countries, expansion of international and supra international corporations and organizations. This is also accelerated by the idea of global economy(Robertson 1992). Globalization cuts across all academic disciplines and have implications on morals and values of people in the world. This is a problem that has generated other terms as deglobalization and globalism. Deglobalization attempts to reduce the impact of globalization while the globalism used used negatively to mean one worldism and cosmopolitanism (Robertson 1992). According to Scott (1997) globalization is visible and powerful order that directs the former concern to the geopolitical stage. It can be measured across the globe by consumers taste identity and by its homogeneity of taste. In the context of global culture it is evident in the distribution of the product. Globalization can also be defined as the historical structures established by societies over time that has exponentially increased in the present time. This has been achieved through mobility of goods and services necessitated by infrastructural development. The idea is largely cordoned by the elites terming it inevitable but the masses view it as danger to traditional life, livelihoods and values (GPF 2008). Herman (1999) emphasize it as the active process extending beyond borders, cross border structural facilities and link of corporate organizations. He adds that it is an ideology that wants to surpass its resistance and uphold it as beneficial and unstoppable. The emergence of globalization has led to theories defining its relevance and importance to world inhabitants. This has been ans issue of international systems that make demarcation of countries l which systematically create and partition separated by economic and process factors. These form the basis of global events that bring a perspective of the world as a systematic entity. This is virtually so because of given set of societies that dictate world unity trends and systems. This is referred to the capitalistic advancement of nations like America to which is characterized by division of labour, political and military relations that accompany economic trends while religion and culture follows simultaneously (Robertson 1992). Instability in the domestic and foreign structures have caused the rise of globalization as seen by the growth of communication and cultural academies, rise of movements, organizations and special interest groups. Globalization has therefore grown through several stages such as universalism, natural sociologies, internationalism, indigenization and later globalization (Robertson 1992). In this context universalism refers to scientific provision to humanity of basic principles and laws where ideas human fraternity is adhered to. While national sociologies emphasized on the professional academies that held intellectual products with high esteem. This is followed by the concept of making all countries follow the systems through internationalism as depicted by the third world creation. This was fostered by the indigenization stage that made such countries to adapt to methods and systems. Thus globalization emerged as the interaction of nationalism and internationalism which is punctuated with problems and conflicts at different life stages. The causes and mechanism behind this are the ones driving up globalization (Robertson 1992). Global issues as refer to in the context of culture have varied significance and measures. First Soules (2002) define culture as knowledge, acts, beliefs, laws, customs and aspirations of inhabitants in different settings around the world. This is identical to certain group of people. However mass culture which appeals to world wide audience is generally referred to popular culture. Any change in the traditional values, norms and daily order raise eyebrows of which is considered deviation from the normal life. But as people move there is interaction of cultures that fuse and transform into new culture that is can be described as global culture (Soules 2002). Therefore, popular culture is symbolic of globalization because of its persuasive nature which cuts across all national cultures. The popular culture referred to here represents popularity of certain personality in areas of music industry. These include stars, products and infrastructure associated with it commonly described as global communication (Scott 1997). Although globalization affects politics it has not received much attention as popular culture but film industry has been discussed at international level whether to be associated with it. It is paramount to not that though politics has not extended beyond its national jurisdiction it is much important in the global culture. Politics is limited by its weak structures at international level than popular culture that is advanced by its network of transnational corporations (Scott 1997). However, global culture may not be a definite evidence that it exists across the world because of its dependence on time, space and distributional mechanisms. But it passes across all nations based on several factors such as global production and global distribution. Whereby global production is brought about by the presence of transnational corporations which control 70 percent of the entertainment industry such as Sony and Tristar Corporations. The global distribution of this popular culture products signify the extend by which it reaches world wide audience. Technological advancement such as use of television cinema and satellite communication media channels have made popular culture received to wide audience in the world (Scott 1997). However, global culture just like the popularity of English language has received its share of criticism. For instance the spread of world single culture as advocated by the entertainment industry does not necessarily mean that the audience practice the same. It can only lead to global multiculturalism where diverse culture can be integrated in order to appeal to popular audience. Although this may lead to cultural plurality but their merger could lead to the a synthesized global culture (Scott 1997). More so the availability of the product does not mean it used for the intended purpose. For example the Soviet Union abused it as such spreading capitalistic ideology of Americans. Most view popular culture as the Americanization of the world. Hence it cannot be received globally without struggle and negotiation through the political and national structures. Global culture also faces a couple of restrictions that is largely dependent on the institutional frameworks, policies of governments, and levels of operations. Institutional frameworks play crucial role in the supply and distribution regulatory structures, education, industrial and economic climate for its operation. Policies that regulate broadcasting, copyright rights and taxation or subsidies play a significant role in the advancement of popular culture (Scott 1997). Most governments do not have cultural policies but have several that indirectly implicate culture within their national jurisdiction. this reflects their priority is promoting culture in their own country. Therefore, global culture faces an uphill task to be accommodated institutionally and into the policies of the respective governments(Scott 1997). Herman (1999) states that globalization is an ideology that is perpetuated by corporate organizations for their own interest. This is seen in the deregulation of several government on its budget, entitlement and free trade.. it does affect the nationalistic protection of indigenous companies while allowing the entry of international multinationals. This ideology has significant impact on economic status of weaker countries. Although it yields economic benefits its impact of whole society is detrimental (Alston 1998). Globalization is argued as one that weakens democracy in several countries. This is a result that governments are forced to enact regulations that give due advantage to the business community. For instance international agreements signed like the4 North American Free Trade Agreement and European Monetary Union. This has been used under the disguise of democracy to weaken the countrys ability to fight for improved wage salary of its workforce. Instead they are supposed to cut labor costs in order to obtain investment from the corporations giving the business community an upper hand to make huge profits (Herman 1999). Through such agreement most countries have fallen victim of deteriorating welfare standards of its citizens. Countries with high cost of labor have lost foreign investment because of relocation to cheap labor countries. Labor movement have also been weakened as opposed to the democratic freedom given of bargaining. This has med policy makers to make business friendly policies at the expense of state welfare. This countries have also advanced restrictive legislation that has tight grip national budget so as to absorbing inflation shocks hence accelerating unemployment and underemployment (Herman 1999). The ideological campaigns advocated b y the business community has reduced government responsibility to support its public hence making its citizens vulnerable to the corporation demands. Also limited financial sources by the individual government have accelerated their dependence on global sponsors that devise policies more favorable to them. It far negates the ability of leaders to develop mechanisms that favor its masses (Tabb 2002). This is evident in the efforts advanced by IMF and World Bank together with media support. This organizations developed conditions that were supposed to be met before funds are released to the countries in need. For instance, IMF developed structural adjustment programs to third world countries outlining conditions such as lean government and privatization. The implications was loss of jobs, increased poverty, increased wealth gap between the rich nations and poor nations (Herman 1999). Globalization in its basic fact is the ideological concept of business elite that send strong signal to people that it cannot be brushed away easily and it is better. Although it has the benefit of increasing interest rates in the stock market and income, inequality rise is more across all countries. For example in the United States productivity rose by 35 percent while underemployment, job security, loss of benefit and lean production system increased in bigger margin (Herman 1999). CONCLUSION Globalization is a new concept that cuts across a all spheres of life such as culture, academic, political, economic and socially. In this paper i have discussed mainly how globalization influenced global culture and its implications. Global culture is defined as mass culture that appeals to world wide audience. It is particularly advanced by popular culture through different media channels. Globalization also touches political and economic aspects of several countries this has a direct effect on the democracy, economic status and welfare of its citizens. Globalization has beneficial impact on the government and citizens with varied margins. REFERNCE Alston, P, 1998, Statement, UN committee, Available at: http://www. globalpolicy. org/globaliz/define/unstate. htm Global policy forum, 2008, globalization,Global policy forum, Available at; http://www. globalpolicy. org/globaliz/index. htm Herman, E, S, 1999, Treat globalization, New politics, vol. 7, No. 2, Available at: Oregon State, 2008, Definition, Available at: oregonstate. edu/instruct/anth370/gloss. html Robertson, R, 1992, Globalization, SAGE, London. Scott, A, 1997, Global culture, Routledge, London. Soules, M, 2002, Culture, History, Available at: http://www. mala. bc. ca/~soules/media112/culture. htm Tabb, W, 1999, Progressive globalism, Monthly review, Available at: http://www. globalpolicy. org/globaliz/define/progglob. htm

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